AP State Syllabus SSC 10th Class Social Studies Solutions 14th Lesson The World Between Wars 1900-1950 Part 2
10th Class Social Studies 14th Lesson The World Between Wars 1900-1950 Part 2 Textbook Questions and Answers
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Russian revolution brought in many changes in their society. What were they? And what challenges did they face?
- Russian socialist revolution happened in two phases in March 1917 and in November 1917.
- They planned rapid industrialization and collectivization of agriculture.
- Thousands of large farmers resisted collective farms.
- After initial period of decline agricultural production soon rose.
- All industries were owned by state which sold products to the consumers directly.
- The USSR achieved full employment for all its citizens and improved their standards of living.
- It also managed to universalise literacy and primary education.
Challenges faced by them :
- Rapid construction led to poor working conditions.
- Low standard of living.
- Lack of educational facilities.
- Lack of proper health care.
Compare different points of view about Great Depression, which one would you agree with? Why?
- The Great Depression lasted between 1929 to 1939.
- It was triggered by decline in demand and fall of prices.
- Maxist Economists argued that it was because of capitalism and can be got rid of only with socialism.
- Economist JM Keynes argued state shall play a crucial role and intervene effectively.
- During decline state shall invest and generate employment and help people to earn money and demand goods in market.
- The countries like USA, England and Germany followed this way and stood successful in coming out of Great Depression.
- I would agree with it as it is result oriented.
In what ways were Jews persecuted during the Nazi Germany? Do you think in every country some people are differentiated because of their identity?
- Jews were merely 0.75% of the population of Germany.
- Nazi ideology depended on majoritarian principles.
- To build the racial supremacy of Germans they committed mass extermination of minority communities.
- They arbitrarily arrested Jews and put them in concentration camps.
- Hitler blamed that Jews were the main cause of all problems.
- He also said communism and capitalism were conspiracies of Jews.
- In the holocaust the killed Jews were around 6 millions.
- There may be instances in some countries where the people differentiated of their identities.
List the measures taken under idea of welfare state under Great Depression and explain how similar or different they are from that of the reforms that emerged under the USSR?
- Different measures were taken under the idea of welfare state.
- These basically consisted of unemployment insurance and old age pension schemes.
- Others are like sickness coverage, health schemes, child care, etc.
- A certain basic minimum dignified life for all citizens was ensured by the state.
- State took care of their most elementary needs like food, housing, health, child and old age care and education.
- There are certain similarities between these and the USSR reforms like state providing employment to all and health care, education, etc.
- More are different from that of the USSR like unemployment insurance, and old age pension schemes, etc.
What challenges were faced by Germany during Great Depression and how did Nazi rulers and Hitler make use of it?
- Before Great Depression the USA gave loans and rescheduled the payments of war damage till 1928.
- But America deeply affected by Great Depression, So German economy was worst hit.
- Workers lost jobs and were paid reduced wages.
- Men hanged placards around their necks ‘saying’ willing to do anywork.
- Youth took to criminal activities and there was total despair in society.
- Salaried employees and pensioners saw their saving diminished when the currency lost its value. Middle class were alarmed as their savings were diminishing.
- Peasantry was effected by fall in prices. Small businessmen, the self-employed and retailers suffered as their business got ruined. Women were unable to fill their children’s stomach.
- All the above causes led to political instability.
- In these situations Hitler promised employment for those looking work and a secure future for youth.
- He promised to undo the injustice of the Versailles treaty and weedout all foreign influences.
- Thus Nazi party’s vote share rose from 2.6% in 1928 to 37% in 1932, becoming the largest party.
What were the political changes brought under the Nazi rule? Often people argue that a single powerful leader can resolve the problems of a country. Based on the experiences narrated in the context of Nazi Germany how do you respond to this vision ?
What were the policies implemented by the Nazis in Germany before the World War II?
- Hitler came to power and immediately tried to dismantle parliament and start autocratic rule.
- Made arbitrary arrest of political opponents and put them in concentration camps.
- On 3 March 1933, the famous Enabling Act was passed which empowered Hitler to sideline parliament and rule by decree.
- All political parties and trade unions were banned except Nazi and its allies.
- The state established complete control over the economy, media, army and judiciary.
- Special security forces like Gestopo were created.
- If power is given to a single leader it leads to dictatorship, undemocratic, autocratic rule.
- If creates horror, fear and finally leads to destruction as it happened to Hitler and Germany. So it is not good. Everyone needs freedom.
10th Class Social Studies 14th Lesson The World Between Wars 1900-1950 Part 2 InText Questions and Answers
10th Class Social Textbook Page No. 190
Read the two views on the revolution in the countryside(The October Revolution and the Russian Countryside: Two Views). Imagine yourself to be a witness to the events. Write a short account from the standpoint of:
- an owner of an estate
- a small peasant
- a journalist.
1) Standpoint of an owner of estate:
- The days after revolution were unbearable, because peasants who used to work in my estate land now revolted against me.
- They came inside my house and looted everything from me and distributed among them.
- My family had worked many years together to earn such huge property which this men took over-night.
2) Standpoint of a small peasant:
‘Long live revolution’. The time has come for the landless to own some land. There would be no landowner to press for heavy rents. No Feudal lord, now able to force to work under him.
3) Standpoint of a journalist:
What once all believed to be a miracle, now came into reality.
Peasant with a smile on his lips, anticipating what is in stores for him.
10th Class Social Textbook Page No. 192
Make a brief assessment of the Soviet experiment. How far was it successful in building a world based on equality, freedom and prosperity?
- Soviet Russia under Stalin experimented a planned development.
- It opted for both rapid industrialisation and collectivisation of agriculture.
- It was able to achieve full employment for all its citizens.
- It was able to improve their standard of living substantially.
- It also managed to, universalise literacy and elementary education.
- It did not give ordinary liberty to the citizens and done away with the opposition.
- It forced large scale execution of opposition leaders.
- It brought prosperity among the society, but the freedom was not bestowed on them and doing away with any opposition was not the sign of equality.
Do you think it is justified to execute thousands of people for the sake of such experiments?
- I don’t think it is justified to execute thousands of people for the sake of such an experiment.
- The USSR regime under Stalin experimented collectivisation of farming.
- Thousands of large farmers renserved it and were imprisoned, depored and even put to death.
- Ordinary democratic liberties were denied to the citizens.
- They have done away with any opposition through the use of force including large scale execution of opposition leaders.
- Rapid construction of economy led to poor working conditions, workers lived hard lives.
- Many intellectuals and others horrified by the violent elimination of opposition and denial of multiparty democracy and freedom in the USSR.
What were the criticisms raised against communist system?
- There were many criticisms raised against communist system in the USSR.
- There was a dictatorship in Russia.
- The citizens were denied ordinary democratic liberties.
- This was done through the use of force including large scale executions of opposition leaders.
- Life of individual was completely controlled by the state.
- Some economic policies of the government brought terrible misery to the people.
10th Class Social Textbook Page No. 194
imagine yourself to be a worker who lost job suddenly and has no employment for the next few years. Write an account of a day in your life in first person.
- I am Narendra Srivastav.
- I had lost my job last year when there was recession in software industry.
- I have been making efforts ever since I lost the job.
- Many interviews I have attended but nothing was materialised.
- With this unemployment financial problems are looming large at me.
- Being unable to shy away from the family responsibilities I was prepared to do any work.
- Still acquiring any job is looking a herculean task.
Imagine yourself to be a farmer who finds that the price of his crop has fallen to less than half.
Write your reaction in three hundred words.
As everyone made more profits in the crop of tomato last year, I decided to go ahead with it. But now I am repenting a lot. Before a month it was sold at Rs. 40 per kg and I believed that this rate may prevail. But due to the influx of tomato from the borders of Karnataka, now the rates were less than 10 Rs. per kg. This volatile change the price of a crop is a matter of discontentment. There were demands everseen for fair price for the crop. At times unable to get the amount of picking up of tomato and transporting to market we left them like that in the farm. Some times we have dumped alongside the road, when it was believed that if would not rise the transport charges to the Market.
We have been making number of requests to the government to set up a minimum support price for the crop of tomato for years. But it was unheeded by the government. The input expenditure is mounting like a steep cliff with increases in the prices of fertilizers and pesticides and even the rates of agricultural labourers. But the outcome of the crop and the price at which it was sold were the concerns of sorrow. We strongly recommend the government to take appropriate action at the earliest possible time to bail out us from these difficult situations. We, the farming community should learn from our mistakes. We should adopt a scientific approach in selecting the crops to be grown, instead of running behind the crops which gave higher returns the previous year. I request everyone to our mite in non-repetition of this difficulty once we faced and strive for prosperous crop raising.
My name is Perayya. I am a farmer in East Godavari district. Due to sufficient rainfall our fields are with good yield. This morning I read in the newspaper that the prices of our crops are suddenly fallen due to some economic reason. I am shocked by reading the news. I am planning to market my yield to repay my loans. But the news made me mad. For the last three years there are no rains and no crops. The loan amount in the Bank is increasing day by day. Now the things are going on like this. I have no other source. How can I come out of all these problems?
I request the government to take appropriate action at the earliest possible time to bail out the farmers like me from these difficult situations.
What aspects of the Welfare State do you find functioning in India today? (OR)
India is functioning as a welfare state in certain aspects. What are those aspects?
- India is providing the people a number of social security schemes.
- It is providing old age pensions.
- It is providing women and child care facilities.
- It is providing health care facilities to the poor and downtrodden.
- It is providing food security to people.
- It is running housing schemes for rural and urban poor independently.
- It is providing free and compulsory education for the children of 6 to 14 years age group.
- It is striving to provide employment to abled persons.
Read the message “From Hitler’s speech” on text page no. 194 and answer the following question. Is Hitler promoting the idea of World conquest here? Do you think world should belong to those who have power and strength alone?
- Hitler is promoting the idea of world conquest here.
- With courage in hearts people can conquer the earth.
- Nation must be vigorous to conquer the world.
- I don’t think that the world should belong to those who have power and strength alone.
- All are universal human beings. One should respect the sovereignty of other.
- Power and strength alone are not eternal.
- World should belong to all who respect the right of others.
10th Class Social Textbook Page No. 195
Do you agree with the view that women should confine themselves to pain and suffering of bringing up the children?
- It is not fair that women should confine themselves to the pain and suffering of bringing up the children.
- As children below certain age cannot do their works independently. So there should be parents ” or elders to assist them.
- To make them learn the dos and donots, they should spare the time.
- As a social norm, men are ekeing out a living, women are entrusted the responsibility of upkeep.
- Now the time has changed women are taking up careers.
- So mutual adjustment and understanding helps in the bringing up of the children.
Do you think men and women can participate equally in all aspects of life including child rearing and work in factories, offices, and fields ?
- We are living in a society customized to beliefs that men are the bread earners and women manage the family.
- Though now we are making attempts to come out of this, it takes much time for the transformation.
- As of now, we cannot say that both are participating equally.
- The system of marriage and living together with family may not allow the men and women equal participation in all aspects of life including child rearing and work in factories, offices and fields.
Yes, I think men and women can participate equally in all aspects of life. But one thing, should be remembered that women are physically weak when compared to men. Men are mentally weak when compared to women. Men and women can participate.
10th Class Social Textbook Page No. 197
Nazi ideology depended on majoritarian principles. Jews were merely 0.75 percent of the population in Germany. Apart from Jews others who opposed Nazi’s were also punished. How does the pastor capture this?
- Nazi ideology depend on majoritarian principles.
- Jews and others who opposed Nazis were also punished.
- The paster captured this in a very,dramatic manner.
- He observed an absence of protest, an uncanny silence amongst ordinary Germans.
- That is because Nazi empire committed brutal and organised crimes against people.
- He satired that Nazi regime done away with communists, social democrats, trade unionists and Jews and finally when they came for him there was no one who could stand up for him.
10th Class Social Textbook Page No. 199
In what ways was the Second World War a logical outcome of Hitler’s ideology and economic policies?
- In many ways the Second World War was a logical outcome of Hitler’s ideology and economic policies.
- He aimed at full production and full employment through a state-funded work-creation programme.
- It produced German superhighways and the people’s car, Volkswagen.
- This period saw an improvement of living standards of Germans.
- He sought to reverse the country’s economic crisis by waging war against other nations.
- Resources were to be accumulated through expansion of territory.
- By 1939, he attacked Poland, which triggered off the Second World War.
Why do you think Hitler wanted to target Jews as the enemy of German people?
- There was a conflict between Christianity and Judaism and they were social, economic and sometimes political conflicts.
- Hitler hated Jews for their race.
- He believed that the Jews were not just the followers of an abhorrent religious doctrine, or that the Jews had grabbed too much economic influence, or even that they were too intrensive in politics or culture.
Find out more about “Holocaust” and “Auschwitz camps” and prepare a project report based on it.
- Holocaust (Holocaust: Ha-Shaoh’ in Hebrew) is persecution of Jews by Nazis.
- It was taken place between 30 Jan 1933 to 8 May, 1945 in particular in Germany and in general world wide.
- An estimated 6 million Jews were killed among them were 1.5 million children.
- Along with Jews Nazis killed around 6 million Christians through out the world.
- Nazis made the propaganda that Jews were their misfortune.
- Nazis made them isolated from the society.
- Nazis confined Jews of poland to Ghettos.
- They were sent to concentration camps.
- Auschwitz was the place where Nazis had concentration camps and conducted the genocide.
- It had 3 main camps and 45 satellite camps.
- Auschwitz I was the camp where the prisoners of war from Poland were kept.
- Auschwitz II camp was also called ‘Biskenau’ was the camp of Jews world wide.
- Auschwitz III was a labour camp to staff an JG Farben Factory.
- These camps were In operation during May 1940 to January 1945.
- It is estimated that nearly 101 million people from all who opposed Nazis and others were brought to and tried and persecuted in these camps.
10th Class Social Textbook Page No. 200
Compare the experiences of the USSR and Germany after the First World War. What similarities and differences do you find between them?
- Both of them suffered heavy losses in the World War – I.
- Both the empires were replaced by powerful dictatorial rulers i.e., Stalin in the USSR and Hitler in Germany.
- Both of them tasted a steady progress.
|1) The USSR adopted Socialism.||1) Germany embraced Nazism.|
|2) Centralized political power and denied civil rights.||2) Nazism adopted aggressive policies and racial supremacy increased.|
|3) Violently eliminated opposition and multiparty democracy.||3) Germans exterminated minorities and inflicted mass murder on innocents.|
|4) The USSR did not follow aggressive foreign policy.||4) Hitler followed an aggressive foreign policy.|
|5) After 2nd World War the USSR rose to the status of world super power.||5) Whereas Germany was divided into two countries.|
The experience of war and depression gave rise to many new alternative models of national development -what were these and what were their limitations?
- The experience of war and depression gave rise to many new alternative models of national development.
- Devising planned economy with Five Year Plans etc. and state to maintain a balance between demand and supply.
- Idea of welfare state coming into prominence by providing food, housing, health, child and old age care and education.
- Government aimed at full production and full employment through a state funded work creation Programme.
- These models of development definitely have limitations like death of funds, dedication of bureaucracy, support from the political opposition, cooperation from the people, etc.
Discuss the images given on Text Page 201. Try to collect more images regarding this period.