AP State Syllabus SSC 10th Class Social Studies Important Questions 16th Lesson National Movement in India–Partition & Independence
10th Class Social 16th Lesson National Movement in India–Partition & Independence 1 Mark Important Questions and Answers
Why did the Indian soldiers join the INA?
The Indian soldiers were against to the British government. They were motivated by Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose and joined the INA to fight against the British.
What was the wish of the Hindu Mahasabha and the RSS?
The Hindu Mahasabha and the RSS wished to unite all Hindus; overcome the divisions of caste and sect and reform their social life.
Who was the Prime Minister that abolished Privy Purses?
What is the two-nation theory?
Partition of India based on religions – Hindus and Muslims is called two-nation theory.
Write any two differences between the Russian Revolution (1917) and the Indian freedom movement.
|Russian Revolution||Indian Freedom Movement|
|1. Against Tsar Nicholas – II||1. Against the British|
|2. Demanded Peace and bread||2. Struggle for freedom|
|3. Two phases||3. Three phases|
|4. Against liberals and aristocrats||4. Against the foreign rule|
This map depicts an event of India’s struggle for Independence. What could be that event?
This is the incident that happened on the partition of India.
Observe the following table. It has certain events shown by letters
Write the suitable ENGLISH LETTER for each event listed above in the boxes against each on the timeline.
“India is a secular state.” Justify this statement by giving two examples.
Yes, India is a secular state. There is no state religion.
- Every Indian has right to follow, propagate and conduct processions on the basis of religion.
- The constitution prohibits discrimination on grounds of religion.
Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh.
How was the name “Pakistan” coined?
The name “Pakistan” or “Pakistan” was derived from Punjab, Afghan, Kashmir, Sindh and Baluchistan and was coined by a Punjabi Muslim student at Cambridge, Choudhry Rehmat Ali.
What was the policy followed by the British in India?
The British followed the policy of “Divide and Rule”.
North-West Frontier Province.
Name the Muslim majority states of the British in India.
Punjab, NWFP, Sindh, Baluchistan and East Bengal.
Which princely states experienced peasant revolt against ruling zamindars?
Travancore and Hyderabad peasants revolted against ruling zamindars.
Who were keen to retain the empire in India?
The conservatives were keen to retain the empire for as long as it was possible.
Who were more willing to help Indians attain freedom?
The labour party was more willing to help Indians attain freedom.
What was the Congress demand?
The Congress also demanded that an immediate national government should be set up at the centre.
How did Congress argue?
The Congress argued that Hindus and Muslims were not people of two different nations but part and parcel of one Indian nation.
Who was sent to India in 1942?
Sir Stafford Cropps.
What was called privy purse?
The government of the princely states was taken over and the princes were given pension funds called privy – purse to meet their personal expenses.
Did Gandhiji agree with the plants of Bose to form INA? Why?
Gandhiji did not agree with the plants of Bose and felt that the Japanese cannot be the liberators of India.
What did the Congress expect before World War – II?
The Congress expected that the British would see their double standards in the expectation that India should support them in fighting the fascists but not giving India full freedom.
Who was the Prime Minister in Britain at the time of the war?
At the time of the war, Britain had an all-party government headed by Prime Minister Winston Churchill of the Conservative Party.
Who were keen to retain the empire in India?
The Conservatives were keen to retain the empire for as long as was possible.
Who were more willing to help Indians attain freedom?
The Labour Party was more willing to help Indians attain freedom.
What did Congress also demand?
The Congress also demanded that an immediate national government should be set up at the Centre.
Why did the British object Congress demand?
The British objected to this by saying that they had to also protect the interests of several other communities in India.
Why had the government had given itself special war time powers?
The government had given itself special war time powers to maintain law and order to be able to focus on winning the war.
How were the special war time powers?
Anyone who opposed the government could be jailed without much delay and kept imprisoned for a long time without going to court. Freedom of speech was also curtailed.
Who was sent to India in 1942?
sir Stafford Cripps.
Where were the independent governments proclaimed?
In several districts, such as Satafra in the west and Medinipur in the east, “independent” governments were proclaimed.
Who won the World War-ll?
The Allied powers.
What happened on 18th February 1946?
On 18th February 1946, the guards or Ratings of the Royal Indian Navy in Bombay harbour came out on hunger strike to protest against bad food and behaviour of their British officers.
Who was the head of Naval Central Strike Committee?
What happened on 30th January 1948?
Less than six months after independence, the Father of the Nation fell to three bullets while going out for his all-religion prayer in the evening of 30 January 1948.
How many princely states were there in India?
There existed around 550 princely states which enjoyed different levels of sovereignty but were under British paramount power.
What happened in Travancore and Hyderabad?
In Travancore and Hyderabad peasants were revolting with arms against the ruling zamindars.
Name the three princely states which joined the Indian Union in the next two years to 1947.
Kashmir, Hyderabad and Junagadh.
Who was the famous leader of the Muslim League?
Mohammad Ali Jinnah was the famous leader of the Muslim League.
What was Gandhiji’s third major movement against British rule?
Gandhiji’s third major movement against British rule was Quit India Movement in 1942.
Did Gandhiji agree with the plans of Bose to form INA? Why?
Gandhi did not agree with the plans of Bose and felt that the Japanese cannot be the liberators of India.
Who wrote ‘Sare Jahan Se Achha Hindustan Hamara’?
The Urdu poet Mohammad Iqbal was the writer of ‘Sare Jahan Se Achha Hindustan Hamara’.
10th Class Social 16th Lesson National Movement in India–Partition & Independence 2 Marks Important Questions and Answers
“India is a land of many religions and many races and must remain so.” Comment.
- India is a land of many religions and many races.
- Even though, it is continuing as a democratic secular state.
- It gives protection to all the citizens irrespective of their religions.
- All citizens have equal rights.
Write about the Indian National Army formulated by Subhash Chandra Bose.
- When the British were defeated by Japan, some Indian soldiers were captured as prisoners by Japan.
- Subhash Chandra Bose raised the Indian National Army with these soldiers.
- Later other Indians also joined the army including many women.
- INA fought against the British for almost three years.
- Finally INA was defeated by the British army.
Which qualities do you like in Mahatma Gandhi? Why?
Qualities of Mahatma Gandhi:
Which qualities of Sardar Patel do you like the most? Why?
The qualities that I like the most in Sardar Patel are:
Explain the causes that led to partition of India?
- Anti-thinking of the Muslims and their communalism.
- Activities of the Muslim League.
- Congress’s policy of Appeasement.
- Communal reaction.
- Congress policy of strengthening India.
- Formation of weak Pakistan in the minds of Indian leaders.
- Development transfer of power. 8) Provisions of the Indian Independent Act.
- British’s policy of divide and rule. 10) Mount Batten Plan.
What was the political picture in India in 1939?
When the war started in 1939, most of the provinces of Indian were governed by Congress ministries. The British government had accepted the principle that the right to rule themselves must be given to Indians to an extent.
Write about the Govt, of India Act 1935.
The Government of India Act was passed in 1935 by the British Parliament. According to this, elections may be held in provinces and governments may be formed by parties that won in the elections.
Why did the British object the Congress’s demand of full freedom?
By objecting they implied that Congress did not represent all Indians, like Muslims. They also implied that Congress may be ignoring the interests of many Indians and the British were required to protect these interests.
Why did all Congress ministries resign in October 1939?
The Congress was upset at the obstinacy of the British and decided to walk out of the provincial governments. All Congress ministers resigned in October 1939 after having come to power in 1937.
Write about the Muslim League.
This was a party formed in 1906. Till 1930, it mainly represented the interests of Muslim landlords of UP and did not have much mass support. It had demanded that the British should create separate seats in all councils for which only Muslims would vote.
What was the agreement of the Muslim League?
The Muslim League had argued that since the majority people in many areas were Hindus, more Hindus are likely to get elected to councils to and Muslims will find it difficult to protect their interests in government. But, if a certain number of seats were reserved for Muslims for which only the Muslims population of an area would vote, the Muslim members reaching the councils will be able to raise the concerns of Muslims.
Where was the Muslim League popular and weak?
The Muslim League was popular in the United Provinces, Bombay and Madras. However, it was quite weak in the three provinces from which Pakistan was to be carved out just ten years later, viz. Bengal, the NWFP and Punjab. Even in Sind it failed to form a government.
How could the League create the impression that the Congress was basically a Hindu Party and did not want to share power with Muslims?
The League pointed out many issues and blamed Congress of insensitivity. The Congress refused to form a coalition government with the League in the United Provinces where it too had won many seats. The Congress had banned its members from taking membership of the League Congress members could be members of the Hindu Mahasabha before. But this was also banned from 1938, only after objections were raised by Muslim Congressmen like Maulana Azad. The League could thus create the impression that the Congress was basically a Hindu party and did not want to share power with the Muslims.
Write about the Hindu Mahasabha and the RSS.
The Hindu Mahasabha and the Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh (RSS) were engarged in active mobilisation. These organisations wished to unite all Hindus, overcome the divisions of caste and sect and reform their social life. They also gave out the message that India was the land of the Hindus who were in a majority. Many Congressmen were also impressed with the activities of these organisations.
Who coined the name Pakistan?
The name Pakistan or Pak-stan was coined by a Punjabi Muslim student at Cambridge, Choudhry Rehmat Ali. In pamphlets written in 1933 and 1935, this young student desired a separate national status for this new entity.
What did the resolution demand?
On 23 March 1940, the League moved a resolution demanding a measure of autonomy for the Muslim majority areas of the subcontinent. This ambiguous resolution never mentioned partition or Pakistan. However, in later years it came to be called the Pakistan Resolution.
What were the dreams of different sections from 1940 to 1946?
From 1940 to 1946, the League was able to convince Muslim masses of the benefits and need for a separate nation. Peasants could think of state where Hindu zamindars and moneylenders did not exploit them. Traders, businessmen and job seekers could think of a state where competition from Hindu traders, businessmen and job seekers would not be there. There would be freedom for the Muslim elite to run the government the way they wanted.
Which was the ‘Quit India’ campaign?
After the failure of the Cripps Mission, Mahatma Gandhi decided to launch his third majority movement against British rule. This was the “Quit India” campaign, which began in August 1942.
What impressions did the victories of Japan create on the people in India?
The victories of Japan against the Americans and Europeans created a strong impression on the people in India. Firstly, it seemed that the European colonialists would get defeated very soon. Secondly, Japan was an Asian country and could stand up against the European colonialists. Indians felt that they too can stand up and fight against Britain decisively. The myth of the racist superiority of the British was smashed.
How were the Indian people after World War – II?
People were restless with food shortages, rationing of food, high prices, black marketeering and hoarding. Workers were angry about low wages. Railway and postal employees and other government employees were planning to go on India wide strike against prices.
What did the strike committee demand?
The Naval Central Strike Committee was elected with M S Khan as its head. The strike committee demanded better food, equal pay for white and Indian sailors, the release of INA and other political prisoners, withdrawal of Indian troops from Indonesia.
What is the significance of the year 1946?
The year 1946 was a year of strikes and work stoppages in factories and mills in many parts of the country. CPI and the Socialist parties were active in these movements. The countryside was also on the boil.
Why did the small and poor peasants start an agitation in Bengal?
Agitation was started in Bengal by small and poor peasants who took land of the bigger landowners to cultivate. They demanded that their share of harvest should be increased to two portions out of three instead of half or even less, that was given to them at that time. This was called the Tebhaga movement and was led by the Provincial Kisan Sabha.
Write about the Direct Action Day.
The Muslim League decided that its demands cannot be met through discussions and it must ask people to come out on the streets. It decided on”Direct Action” for winning its Pakistan demand and announced 16 August 1946 as “Direct Action Day”. On this day, riots broke out in Calcutta, lasting several days and leaving several thousand people dead. By March 1947, violence spread to many parts of northern India.
Why didn’t Gandhiji celebrate the first Independence Day?
Gandhiji moved amongst riot hit people, in camps and hospitals, spreading the message of peace and brotherhood. This was not the freedom and Swaraj he had worked so hard to achieve. The Father of the Nation fasted and did not celebrate on the first Independence Day.
Why did Congress organise individual satyagrahas through 1940 and 1941?
Through 1940 and 1941, the Congress organised a series of individual satyagrahas to pressure the rulers to promise freedom once the war had ended.
Why did the British resort to the ‘Divide and Rule Policy’?
- The British were desperate with the Indian people revolting against their rule.
- They looked for ways to punish Congress and weaken its hold over the people.
- The British actively raised doubts about the right of Congress to represent the people of the country.
- Then they followed “Divide and Rule Policy” more vigorously.
Write any features liked by you in Mahatma Gandhi.
- Gandhi took the national movement to masses.
- Gandhiji all the time depended upon the weapons of Truth and Non – violence.
- He worked for the welfare of Harijans.
- He introduced the concept Satyagraha.
10th Class Social 16th Lesson National Movement in India–Partition & Independence 4 Marks Important Questions and Answers
“Religions have been playing a prominent role since the partition of India.” Write your evidences.
- The growth of Muslim separation from the late 19th century and the rise of communal violence from 1920s to the virulent outbreaks of 1946-1947.
- Muslims, as a religious community, comprised only 20% of the population and represented great diversity in economic, social and political terms.
- From the late 19th century, some of its political elites in northern India felt increasingly threatened by British devolution of power. Due to this, the logic of numbers would mean the dominance of the majority Hindu community.
Do you think Indians should have felt grateful to the British government for the powers given by the act of 1935? Write your opinion.
No, we need not have felt grateful to the British government for the powers given by the Act of 1935 because of the following reasons:
- India is meant for Indians only.
- We have right to freedom.
- To British were forced by Indian freedom fighters.
- That’s why the British passed the Act of 1935.
So we should be grateful to our national leaders and freedom fighters, not to the Britishers.
Write a brief note on the assassination of Gandhiji.
- Gandhiji was unhappy with the communal riots in north-western India and tried to calm the fears and anger of the people.
- Yet, some sections of people were annoyed with Gandhi for his role in Indian politics.
- They disturbed his all-religion prayer meetings many times.
- An unsuccessful attempt on his life was made two days before his actual assassination.
- Finally, less than six months after Independence, on the evening of 30th January 1948, Gandhi was shot with three bullets while going for his all-religion prayer meeting. As desired by him, before dying Gandhi reportedly said, ‘Hey, Ram’.
- His assassin, Nathuram Godse ran off from the scene of the crime and was later arrested in Bombay.
- He was once a member of Hindu Mahasabha and because of his actions, many became against this organisation.
Read the following text and interpret.
The British government, even without the consultation of the Congress government, decided that India will participate in the war. The Congress was torn in its mind over the question. Most Congress leaders were opposed to Hitler, Mussolini and the ideology of Fascism. They were determined to resist the Fascist drive to conquer other sovereign nations. The Congress expected that the British would see their double standards in the expectation that India should support them in fighting the Fascists but not give (or at least promise) India full freedom.
Comment on the double standard role of the British.
- The Congress expected that the British would see their double standards in the expectation that India should support them in fighting the Fascists but not giving India full freedom.
- The British realised this but at the same time, it was hard for them to accept that they would really have to dismantle the empire they had built.
- The British were willing to give Indian Dominion status under the British crown some time after the War, but the Congress wanted a promise of full freedom for India.
- The British objected to this by saying that they have to also protect the interests of several other communities in India. With this they implied that the Congress did not represent all Indians, like Muslims.
- They also implied that Congress may be ignoring the interests of many Indians. So, the British were required to protect these interests.
Read the following paragraph and comment on it.
Agitation was started in Bengal by small and poor peasants who took land of the bigger landowners to cultivate. They demanded that their share of harvest should be increased to two portions out of three instead of half or even less, that was given to them at that time. This was called the ‘Tebhaga’ movement and was led by the Provincial Kisan Sabha.
Do you support small and poor peasants’ demands? How?
I do agree with the small and poor peasants demands because –
- They demanded their share of harvest should be increased to two portions out of three instead of half or even less.
- Although they invested on the production of crops they did not get reasonable remuneration of share harvest.
- They were forced to pay more land tenure. Due to this they faced more economic crises and failed to repay their debts.
How did the Indian National Army fight for Indian freedom? Explain.
- Subhash Chandra Bose recruited the prisoners of war, captured by Japan in the Indian National Army.
- Later other Indians also joined in the Army including women.
- Though Gandhi was not interested in encouraging INA for waging a war, Subhash Chandra Bose persisted in the path and led Indian soldiers to fight against the British.
- With that intention he took help from Germany also.
- Thousands of soldiers joined Indian National Army.
- In view of the Britishers, the soldiers of INA were traitors but in view of the Indians they are National Heroes.
- The INA soldiers sacrificed their lives for the sake of Indian Independence.
- The British suppressed them.
- Subhash Chandra Bose continued his struggle against the British for almost three years but unfortunately his army was defeated.
- The British decided to court martial the soldiers of Indian National Army for being traitors to the army and hanging them to death in punishment.
Read the given paragraph and write your opinion.
The initial victories of Japan against the Americans and Europeans created a strong impression on the people in India. Firstly, it seemed that the European colonialists would get defeated very soon. Secondly, Japan was an Asian country and could stand up against the European colonialists. Indians felt that they too can stand up and fight against Britain decisively.
Opinion on Paragraph :
- In my view, Japan a tiny nation defeated Russia in 1905 and China.
- With this courage during Second World War in the initial period Japan was victorious against the allies.
- By seeing this victory of Japan we got a strong impression that we Indians can decisively fight against our colonial masters.
- We also thought that wherever European colonists occupied Afro-Asian countries would also liberate from the clutches of the colonists.
- Japan an Asian country was against the Europian colonists. So India took an opportunity stand on the side of Japan and fought against dominance in India.
- From this we can understand an example of Subash Chandra Bose who wanted to take support of Japanese to overthrow the British rule.
Explain the circumstances that arouse after the partition of India.
Circumstances that arouse after the partition of India :
When India was divided, there was a problem of fear and threat among the Hindus and Muslims. Pakistan was separated as a new country and it was separated on the basis of religion. If Pakistan was separated on the basis of religion, all Muslims should go to Pakistan and all Hindus should be in Hindustan such discussions were also taken place but practically there were many problems for all this. This two religious people suffered of anger and hatred. Many were killed looted, and burnt each other. From Pakistan thousands of Hindus came to India as refugees. Many stayed on roads. Gradually they were settled relief camps. Insecurity feeling was developed among the Hindus and Muslims.
Look at the picture given below
Answer the following:
a) Identify the leader given in the picture.
b) Name the Military Organization that he formed.
c) State any two objectives of that organisation.
a) The leader in the picture is Subhash Chandra Bose,
b) He formed India Nation Army a Military Organisation.
- India’s independence was the utmost important.
- Should take the help of the Japanese to throw out the British.
Appreciate the role of Subhash Chandra Bose.
- Subhash Chandra Bose was one of the greatest freedom fighters of India.
- He wanted to take up the opportunity created by the difficulties of the British.
- He believed that India’s independence was of utmost important.
- For that he took the help of the enemies of the British, i.e., Japan and Germany.
- Bose recruited “Prisioners of war” into his Indian National Army.
- Bose continued in his chosen path though opposed by many.
- His INA fought against the British for three years.
- Though defeated, he has become immortal for his bravery.
Read the following para and comment on “Divide and Rule of British.”
Towards this end, the British government supported and encouraged the plans of the Muslim League and downplayed the importance of the Congress. It is in these years that the Muslim League and its leaders like M A Jinnah became more active in mass politics.
- The British were desperate with the Indian people revolting against their rule.
- They wanted to finish Congress.
- They looked for the ways to weaken its hold over the people of India.
- They created doubt among Muslims and adopted and implemented their age-old policy of “Divide and Rule”.
- They encouraged the plans of the Muslim League.
- During early years “it” did not receive much support.
- By 1937 and in 1946 elections it succeeded. .
- The British followed “Divide and Rule” policy and they are successful in dividing India into two countries.
Read the letter of Gandhiji to Hitler and answer the following question.
LETTER TO ADOLF HITLER
Friends have been urging me to write to you for the sake of humanity. But I have resisted their request, because of the feeling that any letter from me would be an impertinence. Something tells me that I must not calculate and that I must make my appeal for whatever it may be worth.
It is quite clear that you are today the one person in the world who can prevent a war which may reduce humanity to the savage state.
Must you pay that price for an object however worthy it may appear to you to be? Will you listen to the appeal of one who has deliberately shunned the method of war not without considerable success?
Any way I anticipate your forgiveness if I have erred in writing to you.
Your sincere friend,
M. K. GANDHI
What was the appeal of Gandhi to Hitler?
- Gandhiji wrote the letter to Hitler for the sake of humanity.
- Gandhiji thought that Hitler was the only one person who could prevent world war.
- Gandhiji was saying that the price for the war however not worth the benefit that Hitler was expecting.
- Gandhiji felt that Hitler should save the world from the disastrous war.
A few incidents of National movement are described here. Study them and answer the given questions.
|Sl.No.||Year||Incident of Importance|
|1.||1939 October||Congress ministries in Provincial Assemblies resigned resenting the attitude of the British Government.|
|2.||1940-41||Congress decided to organize individual satyagrahas and get arrested to pressurize the British.|
|3.||1942||After the failure of Cripps Mission Gandhiji gave a Mantra ‘do or die’ in ‘Quit India’ Movement.|
|4.||1942||Subhash Chandra Bose, formed Indian National Army to fight the British to get Independence.|
|5.||1946||A strike was organised by the guards of Royal Indian Navy at Mumbai.|
a) Who founded Indian National Army?
Subhash Chandra Bose founded Indian National Army.
b) Which movement was organised after the failure of Cripps Mission?
Quit India movement was organised after the failure of Cripps Mission.
c) When did the Congress ministries resign?
The Congress ministries resigned in October 1939.
d) Which incident took place in the year 1946?
A strike by Royal Indian Navy Guards at Mumbai was the incident took place in the year 1946.
e) When were individual satyagrahas organised?
Individual satyagrahas were organised from 1940 to 1941.
Identify the following places related to National Movement in the given map of India.
Locate the following in the given map of World.
2. This country ruled India for two hundred years
Answer: Great Britain
3. This country was ruled by Dutch people
4. This is called tear drop of Indian Ocean
Answer: Sri Lanka