AP State Board Syllabus AP SSC 10th Class English Textbook Solutions Chapter 6C Unity in Diversity in India Textbook Questions and Answers.
AP State Syllabus SSC 10th Class English Solutions Chapter 6C Unity in Diversity in India
10th Class English Chapter 6C Unity in Diversity in India Textbook Questions and Answers
I. Answer the following questions.
What do you understand by the expression ‘Unity in Diversity’?
India is a country of various cultures, traditions and languages. Still it has one heart. Our cultural heritage serves as a bond of unity between the people of different faiths and creeds. People have sought to develop to achieve a desirable goal of unity amidst diversity.
Which aspect is Smith commenting on?
Smith is commenting on the distinguished features of India that makes it significant and extraordinary. But the feeling of unity is quite common for every Indian in terms of human, social and intellectual development.
Pick out the factors that contribute to Unity in Diversity.
India’s rich heritage, culture, traditions, conventions, civilization, customs, ethnicity, art and literature contribute to the unity of the nation.
Why did the writer use the statement ‘It is not a mere collection of separate people’. Give reasons.
The writer means to say that people of different cultures, traditions, languages, sects, races are synthesized into one unit and absorbed as a whole in this world’s big stage.
“Hindi is now understood and recognised as the national language of India.” Do you agree or disagree with the author? Give reasons.
Yes, Hindi is considered as the lingua franca of India. From north to south of India, from east to west, Hindi is understood and recognised as the national language of India. Hindi, like English, is understood in almost every part of the country and stands as a symbol of unity and brotherhood in the present civilization.
I. Read the following words/phrases and find the words/phrases from the text which convey the same meaning.
1. myriad : many, veritable, numerous, several, manifold, composite
2. synthesis : combine, common, unique bonds, composite, aggregate, whole, uniformity, assimilate
3. diversity : difference, disunity, differential, different, varied, separate, contrast
4. dialects : local languages, lingua franca
5. saints : seers , sages, yogis, maharshis, spiritual leaders
II. Read the phrases and find the suitable words equivalent to them from the text.
a) a part of country : land
b) try to do : desire
c) develop quickly : flourish
d) behave in a particular way : emulate
e) a very sad event : tragedy
I. Fill in the table with the most appropriate dance form related to each state and the occasion on which it is performed
|Name of the State||Dance form|
|1. Andhra Pradesh||Kuchipudi|
|4. Kerala||Kathakali, Mohini Attam|
|6. Tamil Nadu||Bharatanatyam|
II. Develop a write up on any one of the dance forms of India.
Remember to focus on the following points.
1. The area it belongs to
2. Its importance
3. Description of the dance
Kuchipudi is one such unique form of Art which is the tasteful blend of grace and vigour, elevation and sensuality, of control and abandonment. With its roots buried in the soil of Andhra Pradesh in India, Kuchipudi was born in a remote village from which it derived its name. In the early days, the Kuchipudi style of dance was in the form of dance dramas, the main purpose being to inculcate divine ecstasy which invokes immortal bliss and brings one closer to the path of salvation. It is strictly classical in nature incorporating Lasya, Thandava and Abinaya in the interpretation of Slokas. It incorporates Samyutha and Asamyutha Hasthas, Karana, Chari, Angahara, Mandala, Nrutha Hasthas etc. all men-tioned in the Natya Sasthra. Kuchipudi dance is the only dance form where all the four Abhinayas (Angika, Vachika, Aaharya and Satvica) are given equal importance. The use of Vachikabhinayam is a special feature in the Kuchipudi dance style. The Dancer not only merely dances but also acts with gestures as well as words. It takes at least ten years for an ordinary dancer to master this art and be able to express Bhava through eyes and Rhythm through foot work.
There were two parallel schools of dance, Nattuva Mela and Natya Mela. Nattuva Mela developed into Bharathanatyam (performing solo items) and Natya Mela into the Kuchipudi dance in dance drama style. Nattuva mela is basically solo dance performed by women and the nattuvangam is generally done by men. The repertoire of this style of dance consists of both erotic and devotional items, Sringara and Bhakti. This is the form of dance that both the temple dancers and the court dancers used to perform, with God or king as the hero, as the case may be. The second style of dance is Natya mela which is generally performed by both men and women. Their repertoire consists of dance dramas with themes, not necessarily religious, to entertain the audience. This later form of dance is believed to be the forerunner of the present day Kuchipudi dance.
Sidhendra Yogi, an exceptionally gifted scholar and artiste, who lived in the 16th century gave a definite format and purified this ancient art. Sidhendra abstained from training women fearing that they might exaggerate the sentiments expressed and dispel it of its spiritual tone. Kuchipudi became an all male domain. The female roles were also impersonated by men.
All the families residing in Kuchipudi were devoted to either in teaching or performing this austere dance style. Dance was their one and only source of living. Kuchipudi remained confined to the narrow limits of an obscure village with little exposure.
Late Guru Sri Vedantam Lakshmi Narayana Sastry, an unparalleled maestro in the field created a flutter by introducing women to Kuchipudi. He has taken Keertanas, Astapadis, Padams, Sabdams, Tarangams for solo performance.
The major attraction in Kuchipudi dance style is performing ‘Tarangam.’ The source literature is Narayana Teertha’s Srikrishna Leela Tarangini. Dancing with the feet settled on the rims of a brass plate was introduced to make the style more attractive and outshine when in comparison with its kindred styles. This is not a gimmick, nor is it an effort to bring in irrelevant acrobatics. Such sequences reveal the artiste’s mastery over rhythmic complexities. Solo items were choreographed; compositions of eminent poets were taken and set to choreography. These changes lent a glimmer to the art and Kuchipudi. Bhama Kalapam and Golla Kalapam are the two major Kalapams that are practised by the Kuchipudi dancers.
Kuchipudi acquired a wholly new dimension. Padmabhushan Dr. Vempati Chinna Satyam refined Kuchipudi, bringing it completely within the boundaries of Natya Sastra and gave it wholly new perspective. He enlarged and enriched the repertoire both in solo items and dance dramas.Compositions of eminent poets in all regional languages were set to the dance.
Dr. Vempati Chinna Satyam has become a legend to look upon with reverence for all times to come in the annals of Kuchipudi. With his arduous efforts to plant Kuchipudi firmly on the cultural map of India, Kuchipudi has spread its wings all over the globe erasing the boundaries of one country and one continent.
I. Collect the data from different families in your area about the festivals they celebrate. You may use the following table to collect the information.
II. Discuss in groups how the data in the Table given above supports the concept of unity in diversity. You may also discuss if there are some other ways that too may help strengthen this unity. Write a report.
People of different religions and cultures that live together in the same neighbourhood will have an opportunity to know and understand each others’ customs, traditions and ritual heritage. There will be a development of respecting each others’ religion, caste or creed and mingle with each other. A sense of universal brotherhood prevails in the neighbourhood which is the first step to progress of the country. The policy of ’Unity in Diversity’ is justified. The elders can sow the seeds of friendship, brotherhood and communal tolerance in the minds of children and enrich their minds with secular feelings.
Internal disputes, communal riots and religious differences which are the pests in the fields of unity, fraternity and solidarity can be removed when we celebrate and participate in each others’ festivals, rituals and customary conventions. The national festivals which we celebrate despite the religious discriminations will help strengthen the feelings of nationality and patriotism which is far above all the differences.
Ours is a country of many ethnic groups, over 1,650 spoken languages, dialects, regional variations—a land of myriad tongues—numerous modes of apparel and countless mannerisms. For the most part, the continental size of the country accounts for the variations and diversities.
It is the dynamism and the flexibility that have enabled Indian culture to survive despite its many diversities and heavy odds. Through these diversities runs a common stream, as it were, and the similarity and unity of outlook can be noticed from North to South and East to West. Indian culture is actually a continuous synthesis, and has absorbed many external influences in the course of history.
The real strength of Indian culture lies in basic unity, vigour and the ability to contain an amazing diversity within itself. In this country there are people who belong to different/varied schools of thought and who never seem to agree on anything. And yet, the concepts of one basic culture and one nation have continued.
Another notable characteristic of Indian culture is that it has always been based on moral and religious values; on these values the outlook shows an amazing similarity, almost throughout the country. Of course, there are groups which seem to be always on the war-path, and there are dissidents who question the basic framework on which the Indian polity is based, but they constitute a very small fraction of the total population.
India is a secular State, and the people, with a few exceptions, have reverence for every faith; there is no effort to impose one religion on other. The Constitution itself, framed with the full consent of the people, guarantees the freedom of thought and expression. The Constitution does not recognise distinctions based on religion, sex or caste, or any other factor.
Modernism coexists with orthodoxy, as does progressive thought with conservatism, and even reactionary trends. The broad features of the Hindu culture, (which is not linked to the Hindu religion but is broadly Indian culture). It is not fixed or static but is constantly adapting itself to changed conditions, thus responding favourably to new challenges; tolerance of conflicting beliefs, liberalism and broadmindedness; emphasis on ethical conduct and spiritualism; control of passions and temper; justice and truth, and disdain of wealth and the pleasures of the senses.
Indian culture, in fact, represents a synthesis on many strains. It contains the best features of many traditions of other lands. Undoubtedly, certain corrupt influences and distortions have crept in, but these aberrations have not affected the basis, which is solid, not shaky in any sense. Absorption and assimilation have been responsible for the lasting qualities of Indian culture; the diversities seem to disappear in course of time, leaving behind the basic beliefs very much intact.
Mahatma Gandhi’s view that veneration for other faiths is a part of our own system holds well because of the recognition that each religion has truth and honesty as its basis. Most people have a wide, universal outlook. All these factors account for the unity in diversity that is an outstanding feature of this country.
Unity in Diversity in India Summary in English
India is a country with many races, cultures, languages and modes of apparel. The religions, sects and beliefs are not the obstacles to perturb its unity.
The traditions, conventions, way of living are in no way barriers of its development. The rich culture and heritage justifies the unity in social, intellectual and human development. The Indian civilization is a mixture of Dravidian, Aryan and Hindu cultures bringing North and South to a common stage.
People may speak different languages, may follow different regional habits but they have one common language to bring into one stream and that is Hindi recognised as the national language of India.
India is a land of rich music, fine arts, sculpture, spiritual impact and passionate heritage. The West gets attracted towards India for the way of life we had. The festivals of India depict the unity, love and feeling of universal brotherhood.
The ancestral heritage of sages, maharishis, spiritual leaders stand as a symbol of piety, peace and non-violence. The temples, monuments and caves represent the rich sculpture and architecture of Indian intellectual minds. The music and dance are considered to be the passion from ancient era to the present. The dance and art forms highlight the aesthetic outlook and spirituality. The themes like power, shakti, tragedy and love are performed to show varied aspects in the united India.
The individual in the whole, the simple in composite and one in many can be the divergence in convergence and unity in diversity – a special feature of only our nation.
Unity in Diversity in India Glossary
ethnic (adj) : connected with/belonging to a nation, race or people that shares a cultural tradition
myriad (adj) : an extremely large number of
veritable (adj) : truthful
babel (n) : the sound of many voices talking at a time
apparel (n) : mode of dress
diversities (n) : differences
eminent (adj) : important
superficial (adj) : not deep/apparent
bewildered (v) : confused
astonishing (adj) : surprising
aggregate (n) : sum/whole
interpretation (n) : individual imagination
synthesis (n) : combination
penetrate (v) : go intoAhrough
discern (v) : to know/understand or recognize; judge
civilisation (n) : an advanced stage of social development
assimilated (v) : absorbed into a larger group
convention (n) : the way in which most people do
heir (n) : person entitled to inherit a property
flourished (v) : existed in abundance
creed (n) : a system of religious belief
blend (v) : to mix two or more substances together
dialects (n) : the forms of a language that are spoken in one area
sages (n) : wise people
seers (n) : people who claim that they can see what is going to happen in the future
piety (n) : showing a deep respect for ( esp: for god/religion)
penance (n) : voluntary self-punishment for wrong doing
contemplation (n) : the act of thinking deeply
proficiency (n) : competency