AP Inter 2nd Year Civics Important Questions Chapter 11 Elections and Representation

Students must practice these AP Inter 2nd Year Civics Important Questions 11th Lesson Elections and Representation to boost their exam preparation.

AP Inter 2nd Year Civics Important Questions 11th Lesson Elections and Representation

Long Answer Questions

Question 1.
Write an essay on the election system in India.
Answer:
Introduction:
Articles 324 to 329 in Part XV of the Constitution make the following provisions with regard to the electoral system in India. They are:

  • The Constitution provides for an independent election commission in order to ensure free and fair elections.
  • There is to be only one general electoral role for every territorial constituency for election to .the Parliament and state legislatures.
  • No person is to be ineligible for inclusion in the electoral roll on grounds of religion, race, caste, gender or any of them.
  • The elections to the Lok Sabha and State Legislative Assemblies are to be on the basis of adult franchise.
  • The Parliament may make provision with respect to all matters relating to elections to the Parliament and state legislatures.
  • The state legislatures can also make provision with respect to all matters relating to elections to the state legislatures including the preparation of nominal rolls.
  • The Constitution declares that the validity of any law relating to the delimitation of constituencies or the allotment of seats to such constituencies cannot be questioned in any court.
  • The Constitution lays down that no elections to the Parliament or State legislature is to be questioned except by an election petition presented to such authority and in such manner as provided by the appropriated legislature.

Question 2.
Explain the functions of Election Commission in India.
Answer:
The powers and functions of Election Commission in India:

The Constitution of India in its Articles 324-328 enumerates the powers and functions of the Election Commission. These can be mentioned hereunder.

  • It prepares all periodically revised electoral rolls.
  • It “makes every effort to ensure that the voters list is free of errors like non-existence of names of registered voters or existence of names of that non-eligible or non-existent.
  • It notifies the dates and schedules of election and scrutinizes nomination papers.
  • During this entire process, the Election Commission has the power to take decisions to ensure a free and fair poll.
  • It can postpone or cancel the election in the entire country or a specific State or constituency on the grounds that the atmosphere is vitiated and therefore, a free and fair election may not be possible.
  • The Commission also implements a model code of conduct for parties and candidates. It can order a re-poll in a specific constituency.
  • It can also order a recount of votes when it feels that the counting process has not been fully fair and just.
  • The Election Commission accords recognitipn to political parties and allots symbols to each of them.
  • It advices the President whether elections can be held in a state under President’s rule in order to extend the period of emergency after one year.
  • It advices the Governor on matters relating to the disqualifications of the members of State Legislature.

AP Inter 2nd Year Civics Important Questions Chapter 11 Elections and Representation

Question 3.
What is Representation? How many types of Representative systems are there in India?
Answer:
Representation – meaning:
In democracy people elect members to the legislatures. The elected members are the representatives of the people. They represent the people in the legislature. This process is called “representation.”

Types of Representation:
There are three types of Representation. They are

  • Territorial Representation
  • Functional Representation
  • Plural Representation

1. Territorial Representation:
In the territorial or geographical representation system, the total electorate of the country is divided into territorial units called constituencies which elect one or more representatives. The constituencies are more or less equal in size and population. All voters living in a particular Constituency take part in the election of representatives. Where one representative is elected from a constituency it is known as a single-member constituency. Where more than one representative is elected, it is known as multi¬member constituency. Most of the modern states, including India, have followed single-members constituencies for the elections to the lower houses of the legislature.

2. Functional Representation:
It is based on occupation. People engaged in the same kind of occupation have more things in common than people living in the same locality. Doctors, farmers, industrial workers, traders, journalists, lawyers, teachers, etc. have more in common than those who live as neighbours. One man cannot represent all trades. Hence, representation should be on functional basis. A legislature representing such different occupational groups would be a proper forum where different interests would be projected and pleaded for. But it is not possible to provide representation to each and every occupation which are innumerable in number and the classification of profession is a touch task.

3. Plural Representation:
Under this system one man is given more than one vote on the basis of electoral, professional or property qualifications. Thus, the modern states have not accepted the principle of plural voting but accepted universal principle of ‘one man one vote’.

Question 4.
Do you think that Indian Election System needs to be reformed?
Answer:
No system of election can ever be perfect. And in an actual election process, there are bound to be many flaws and limitations. Any democratic society has to keep searching for mechanisms to make elections free and fair, independent and impartial to the maximum. With the acceptance of adult suffrage, freedom to contest elections, and the establishment of an independent Election Commission, India has tried to make its election process free and fair. However, the experience of the last sixty five years has given rise to many suggestions for reforming our election system. The Election Commission, Political Parties, various independent groups, and many scholars have come up with proposals for electoral reforms.

Suggestions of various committee regarding the Electoral Reforms:
1. Lowering of Voting Age:
T o give an opportunity to unrepresented youth of the country, the 61st Constitutional Amendment Act of 1998 reduced the voting age from 21 years to 18 years-both for Lok Sabha and the Assembly Elections.

2. Electronic Voting Machines:
In 1989, a provision was made to facilitate the use of Electronic Voting Machines (EVMs) in elections. The EVMs were used for the first time in 1998 on experimental basis in selected constituencies in the election to the Assemblies of Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh and Delhi. The EVMs were used for the first time in the General Elections for the entire nation in 1999.

3. Prohibition on the sale of liquor:
No liquor or other intoxicants are to be sold or given or distributed at any shop, eating place, hotel or any other place whether public or private within a polling area during the period of 48 hours ending with the hour fixed for the conclusion of poll. Any person who violates this rule is to be punished with imprisonment up to 6 months or with fine up to Rs. 2,000/- or with both.

4. Prohibition of Arms:
Entering into the neighbourhood of a polling station with any kind of arms is to be considered a cognizable offence. Such an act is punishable with imprisonment of up to two years or with fine or with both. Further, the arms found in possess! on of the offender are to be confiscated and the related license is to be cancelled.

5. Voting through Postal Ballot:
In 1999, a provision was made for voting by certain classes of persons through postal ballot. Thus, any class of persons can be notified by the Election Commission, in consultation with the, and the persons belonging to such notified class can give their votes by postal ballot, and not in any other manner, at elections in their constituency or constituencies.

AP Inter 2nd Year Civics Important Questions Chapter 11 Elections and Representation

Short Answer Questions

Question 1.
Write a short note on Electoral functions. [March-2017]
Answer:
The electoral functions are different for the individual voter and for the political system. For the individual voter, elections may be regarded as a means of political participation and to some extent, of policy influencing, and policy choice, although for many voters. Even in democratic societies, elections may be a customary act to which little significance is attached. For the political system, elections are important devices for assuring legitimacy and for system maintenance and support-building. Hence, the electoral functions may be considered into four broad categories. They are a) Political Choice, b) Political Participation, c) Support-building and system-maintenance and d) Linkage functions.

Question 2.
Discuss the election process in India. [March-2019]
Answer:
Conduct of General Elections in India, for electing a new Lower House of Parliament (Lok Sabha) and Legislative Assemblies in the states, involves the management of the largest event in the world. Electoral process begins normally every five years with announcement by the President, in the case of election to the Parliament, and by the respective state Governors, in the case of election to the State Legislatures, calling upon the voters to elect their representatives. The elections to the Parliament and the State legislatures can be held at the same time or at different times. The Election Commission issues a notification regarding the election programme, setting dates for filling nomination papers of the candidates, scrutiny of their applications, withdrawals of candidature, publication of the final list of candidates and polling. Simultaneously, different parties and groups begin their own exercise of allotment of party tickets to the candidates for the various constituencies, in which they propose to contest. Nomination papers of the candidates are submitted to the Returning Officer appointed by the Commission, with a prescribed deposit of money, which a candidate forfeits if he fails to secure less than one-tenth of the total number of valid votes cast in his constituency.

Question 3.
Write a short note on composition and functions of Election Commission. [March-2018, March 2017,’16; May ’16]
Answer:
Composition:
Article 324 of the Constitution has made the following provisions with regard to the composition of election commission. Since its inception 1950 and till 15th Oct, 1989, the Election Commission functioned as a single member body consisting of the Chief Election Commissioner. On 16th October, 1989 the President of India appointed two more Election Commissioners to cope up with the increased work of the Election Commission. Thereafter, the Election Commission started functioning as a multi-member body consisting of 3 Election Commissioners.

Functions of Election Commission:

  • It prepares all periodically revised electoral rolls.
  • It makes every effort to ensure that the voters’ list is free of errors like non-existence of names of registered voters or existence of names of that non-eligible or non¬¨existent.
  • It notifies the dates and schedules of election and scrutinizes nomination papers.
  • During this entire process, the Election Commission has the power to take decisions to ensure a free and fair poll.
  • It can postpone or cancel the election in the entire country or a specific State or constituency on the grounds that the atmosphere is vitiated and therefore, a free and fair election may not be possible.

Question 4.
What is Representation? What do you know about Territorial Representation?
Answer:
Representation – Meaning:
In democracy people elect members to the legislatures. The elected members are the representatives of the people. They represent the people in the legislature. This process is called representation.

1) Territorial Representation:
In the territorial or geographical representation system, the toted electorate of the country is divided into territorial units called constituencies which elect one or more representatives. The constituencies are more or less equal in size and population. All voters living in a particular Constituency take part in the election of representatives. Where one representative is elected from a constituency it is known as a single-member constituency. Where more than one representative is elected, it is known as multi-member constituency. Most of the modern states, including India, have followed single-members constituencies for the elections to the lower houses of the legislature.

AP Inter 2nd Year Civics Important Questions Chapter 11 Elections and Representation

Question 5.
Estimate the pros and cons of FPTP system in India.
Answer:
In our country we have been following a special method of elections. The entire country is divided into 550 constituencies, each constituency elects one representative and the candidate who secures the highest number of votes in that constituency is declared elected. It is important to note that in this system whoever has more votes than all other candidates is declared elected. The winning candidate need not secure a majority of votes. This method is called the First Past the Post system (FPTP). In the election race, the candidate who is ahead of others, who crosses the winning post first of all, is the winner. This method is also called the Plural System. This is the method of election prescribed by the Constitution.

In India this FPTP system is popular and successful because of its simplicity. The entire election system is extremely simple to understand even for common voters who may have no specialized knowledge about politics and elections. There is also a clear choice presented to the voters at the time of elections. Voters may either give greater importance to the party or the candidate or balance the two. The FPTP system generally gives the largest party or coalition some extra bonus seats, more than their share of votes would allow. Thus, this system makes it possible for parliamentary government to function smoothly and effectively by facilitating the formation of a stable government.

Question 6.
Write a note on the electoral reforms. [May-2017]
Answer:
Electoral Reforms:
1. Lowering of voting age:
T o give an opportunity to unrepresented youth of the country, the 61st Constitutional Amendment Act of 1998 reduced the voting age from 21 years to 18 years both for Lok Sabha and the Assembly Elections.

2. Electronic Voting Machines:
In 1989, a provision was made to facilitate the use of Electronic Voting machines (EVMs) in elections. The EVMs were used for the first time in 1998 on experimental basis in selected constituencies in the election to the Assemblies of Rajasthan.

3. Prohibition on the sale of liquor:
No liquor or other intoxicants are to be sold or given or distributed at any shop, eating place, hotel or any other place whether public or private within a polling area during the period of 48 hours ending with the hour fixed for the conclusion of poll.

4. Prohibition of Arms:
Emerging into the neighbourhood of a polling station with any kind of arms is to be considered a cognizable offence. Such an act is punishable with imprisonment of up to two years or with fine or with both.

Question 7.
What is meant by Proportional Representation System?
Answer:
Proportional Representation System:
Under this system each party gets representation strictly in accordance with its voting strength. It means maj ority of electors would have majority of the representatives, but a minority of electors would have minority of representatives. Proportional representation is that method where by the percentage of seats in a Legislative Assembly captured by one party is proportionate to its share of the popular vote. The assumption is that if the socialist party polls 2 percent of the votes, it should wind up with 2 percent of the seats in the Legislative Assembly. The aim is to give representation to all sections of opinion and all interests in the state in proportion to the numerical strength of their votes and that no vote should be lost. Proportional Representation is of two types. They are i) Hare System ii) List system.

AP Inter 2nd Year Civics Important Questions Chapter 11 Elections and Representation

Very Short Answer Questions

Question 1.
Relations between democracy and elections.
Answer:
Elections are the central institution of democratic representative governments. In democracy, elections are periodic. Elected officials are accountable to the people and they must return to the voters at prescribed intervals to seek their mandate to continue in office.

Question 2.
Electronic Voting Machines (EVM).
Answer:
An Electronic Voting Machine is a simple electronic device used to record votes in the place of Ballot papers and Boxes which were used earlier in conventional voting system. The main advantage of EVM is that it reduces printing cost and makes the process of counting of votes much faster than the conventional system.

Question 3.
Territorial Representation.
Answer:
In the territorial or geographical representation system, the total electorate of the country is divided into territorial units called constituencies which elect one or more representatives. The constituencies are more or less equal in size and population. All voters living in a particular Constituency take part in the election of representatives.

Question 4.
Functional Representation. [March 2017; May ’17]
Answer:
It is based on occupation. People engaged in the same kind of occupation have more things in common than people living in the same locality. Doctors, farmers, industrial workers, traders, journalists, lawyers, teachers, etc. have more in common than those who live as neighbours. One man cannot represent all trades. Hence, representation should be on functional basis.

Question 5.
Composition of Election Commission of India.
Answer:
Election Commission was set up in the year 1950. At the beginning it functioned as a single member body consisting of Chief Election Commissioner. From 16th October, 1989, the President of India appointed two or more election commissioners to cope up with the increased work. Thereafter, the Election Commission started functioning as a multi-member body consisting of 3 Election Commissioners.

Question 6.
Electoral Reforms. [March ’19,’18,’16; May ’16]
Answer:
The various Committees and Commissions, which were appointed to examine our electoral system and election machinery have recommended for certain reforms, which include lowering of age, Electronic voting machine, prohibition on the sale of Liquor, etc.

AP Inter 2nd Year Civics Important Questions Chapter 11 Elections and Representation

Question 7.
Election offences.
Answer:
Election offence means indulging in any of the illegal acts or methods is liable to imprisonment or fine or both. Imprisonment can vary from three months to three years. Election offences include convening, holding or attending any public meeting during 48 hours before the end of poll, violation of maintenance of secrecy of vote etc.

Question 8.
Corrupt practices in elections.
Answer:
Any corrupt practice results in an election being declared void by the Election Commission. The person concerned is to be disqualified for future elections upto six years and could also be prosecuted. Corrupt practices in elections include bribing a person to induce him/her to stand or not to stand as a candidate, booth capturing, etc.

Question 9.
Role of Election Commission in India. [March-2017]
Answer:
Over the years; the Election Commission of India has emerged as an independent authority which has aserted its powers to ensure fairness in the election process. It has acted in an impartial and unbiased manner in order to protect the sanctity of the electoral process. The record of EC also shows that every improvement in the functioning of institutions does not require legal or constitutional change.

Question 10.
Representation.
Answer:
In democracy, people elect members to the Legislatures. The elected members are the representatives of the people. They represent the people in the legislature. This process is called “representation”. This representation is of three types. They are a) Territorial representation b) Functional representation c) Plural representation.

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