AP Inter 2nd Year Chemistry Notes Chapter 9 Biomolecules

Students can go through AP Inter 2nd Year Chemistry Notes 9th Lesson Biomolecules will help students in revising the entire concepts quickly.

AP Inter 2nd Year Chemistry Notes 9th Lesson Biomolecules

→ Carbohydrates : The compounds which are primarily produced by plants and form a very large group of naturally occuring organic compounds are called Carbohydrates.
Eg : Glucose, Fructose, Starch.
Carbohydrates are the polyhydroxy aldehydes (or) ketones.

→ A carbohydrate which donot form any saccharide unit on hydrolysis (or) which cannot be hydrolysed is called monosaccharide.
Eg : Glucose, Fructose.

→ Disaccharides gives two non-saccharides on hydrolysis.
Eg.: Sucrose, Lactose, etc.

→ Polysaccharides gives large number of monosaccharides on hydrolysis.
Eg. : Starch, Cellulose.

→ A poly peptide with more than hundred amino acid residues, having molecular mass higher than 10,000 units is called a protein.
Eg : Keratin, Myosin, Insulin

AP Inter 2nd Year Chemistry Notes Chapter 9 Biomolecules

→ When the poly peptide chains run parallel and are held together by hydrogen and disulphide bonds then fibre – like structure is formed. These are called fibrous proteins. These are insoluble in water.
Eg : Keratin, Myosin

→ When the chains of polypeptides coil around to give a spherical shape then globular proteins are formed. These are usually soluble in water.
Eg : insulin and albumins.

→ Amide AP Inter 2nd Year Chemistry Notes Chapter 9 Biomolecules 1 linkages between amino acids are known as peptide linkages.

→ Essential amino acids : The amino acids that cannot be synthesised by the body and must be supplied in the diet are called essential amino acids.
Ex: valine, leucine, phenyl alanine etc.,
Non-essential amino acids : Other amino acids synthesised by the tissues of the body are called non-essential amino acids.
Ex : Glycine, alanine etc.,

AP Inter 2nd Year Chemistry Notes Chapter 9 Biomolecules

→ Nucleic acids are long chain polymers of nucleotides i.e poly nucleotides. Nucleic acids are constituted by pentose sugar, phosphoric acid, and nitrogenous hetero cyclic base (purine (or) pyrimidine)

→ Three types of RNA are :

  1. messenger RNA (m – RNA)
  2. Ribosomal RNA (r – RNA)
  3. Transfer RNA (t – RNA)

→ Vitamin is defined as an “accessory food factor which is essential for growth and healthy maintenance of the body”.
AP Inter 2nd Year Chemistry Notes Chapter 9 Biomolecules 2
AP Inter 2nd Year Chemistry Notes Chapter 9 Biomolecules 3

→ Hormone is defined as an “organic compound synthesised by the ductless glands of the body and carried by the blood stream to another part of the body for its function”.

→ Example for steroid hormones : Testosterone, Estrogen

AP Inter 2nd Year Chemistry Notes Chapter 9 Biomolecules

→ Example for polypeptide hormones : Insulin

→ Example for Aminoacid derivative : Thyroidal hormones Thyroxine.