Students can go through AP Inter 2nd Year Chemistry Notes 5th Lesson General Principles of Metallurgy will help students in revising the entire concepts quickly.
AP Inter 2nd Year Chemistry Notes 5th Lesson General Principles of Metallurgy
→ Minerals : The naturally occuring chemical compounds of metal in the earth’s crust are called minerals.
→ Ore : The mineral from which metal can be extracted economically is called ore.
→ Gangue: The ore is contaminated with the minerals of earth crust and undesired chemical compounds. These are known as gangue (or) matrix.
→ Flux : An outside substance added to ore to lower its melting point is known as flux.
→ Slag: The fused material obtained during the refining (or) smelting of metals by combining the flux with gangue is called slag.
→ Important ores of ‘Al’ are Bauxite (Al2O32H2O), Cryolite (Na3AlF6)
→ Important ores of’Fe’are Haematite (Fe2O3), Magnetite Fe3O4
→ Important ore of ‘Cu’ is Copper pyrites (CuFeS2)
→ Important ore of ‘Zn’ is Zinc blende(ZnS)
→ Froth floatation is employed to concentrate sulphide ores
→ This diagram helps us in predicting the feasibility of thermal reduction of an ore.
→ The criterion of feasibility of a reaction is that at a given temperature, Gibb’s energy of the reaction must be negative.
→ Roasting : Removal of the volatile components of a mineral by heating mineral either alone (or) mixed with some other substances to a high temperature in the presence of air is called Roasting.
→ Calcination : Removal of the volatile components of a mineral by heating in the absence of air is called calcination.
→ Refining of metal can be done by zone refining, vapour phase refining, electrolys’s etc.