AP Inter 2nd Year Botany Study Material Pdf | Intermediate 2nd Year Botany Textbook Solutions

Telangana & Andhra Pradesh BIEAP TS AP Intermediate Inter 2nd Year Botany Study Material Textbook Solutions Guide PDF Free Download, TS AP Inter 2nd Year Botany Blue Print Weightage 2022-2023, Telugu Academy Intermediate 2nd Year Botany Textbook Pdf Download, Questions and Answers Solutions in English Medium and Telugu Medium are part of AP Inter 2nd Year Study Material Pdf.

Students can also read AP Inter 2nd Year Botany Syllabus & AP Inter 2nd Year Botany Important Questions for exam preparation. Students can also go through AP Inter 2nd Year Botany Notes to understand and remember the concepts easily.

AP Intermediate 2nd Year Botany Study Material Pdf Download | Sr Inter 2nd Year Botany Textbook Solutions

Unit I Plants Physiology

Unit II Microbiology

Unit III Genetics

Unit IV Molecular Biology

Unit V Biotechnology

Unit VI Microbes and Human Welfare

TS AP Inter 2nd Year Botany Weightage Blue Print 2022-2023

TS AP Inter 2nd Year Botany Weightage 2022-2023 | TS AP Inter 2nd Year Botany Blue Print 2022

  • TS AP Inter 2nd Year Botany Weightage Blue Print

Intermediate 2nd Year Botany Syllabus

TS AP Inter 2nd Year Botany Syllabus

Unit I Plants Physiology

Chapter 1 Transport in Plants
Means of Transport – Diffusion, Facilitated Diffusion, Passive symports and antiports, Active Transport, Comparison of Different Transport Processes, Plant-Water Relations – Water Potential, Osmosis, Plasmolysis, Imbibition, Long Distance Transport of Water – Water Movement up a Plant, Root Pressure, Transpiration pull, Transpiration – Opening and Closing of Stomata, Transpiration and Photosynthesis, Uptake and Transport of Mineral Nutrients – Uptake of Mineral Ions, Translocation of Mineral Ions, Phloem Transport: Flow from Source to Sink – The Pressure Flow or Mass Flow Hypothesis.

Chapter 2 Mineral Nutrition
Methods to Study the Mineral Requirements of Plants, Essential Mineral Elements – Criteria for Essentiality, Macronutrients, Micronutrients, Role of Macro- and Micro- nutrients, Deficiency Symptoms of Essential Elements, Toxicity of Micronutrients, Mechanism of Absorption of Elements, Translocation of Solutes, Soil as Reservoir of Essential Elements, Metabolism of Nitrogen -Nitrogen Cycle, Biological Nitrogen Fixation, Symbiotic nitrogen fixation, Nodule Formation.

Chapter 3 Enzymes
Chemical Reactions, Enzymatic Conversions, Nature of EnzymeAction, Factors Affecting Enzyme Activity, Temperature and pH, Concentration of Substrate, Classification and Nomenclature of Enzymes, Co-factors.

Chapter 4 Photosynthesis in Higher Plants
Early Experiments, Site of Photosynthesis, Pigments Involved in Photosynthesis, Light Reaction, The Electron TransportSplitting of Water, Cyclic and Non- cyclic Photo-phosphorylation, Chemiosmotic Hypothesis, Biosynthetic phase – The Primary Acceptor of CO2, The Calvin Cycle, The C4 Pathway, Photorespiration, Factors affecting Photosynthesis.

Chapter 5 Respiration of Plants
Cellular respiration, Glycolysis, Fermentation, Aerobic Respiration – Tricarboxylic Acid Cycle, Electron Transport System (ETS) and Oxidative Phosphorylation, The Respiratory Balance Sheet, Amphibolic Pathway, Respiratory Quotient.

Chapter 6 Plant Growth and Development
Growth- Plant Growth, Phases of Growth, Growth Rates, Conditions for Growth, Differentiation, Dedifferentiation and Redifferentiation, Development, Plant Growth Regulators – Physiological Effects of Plant Growth Regulators, Auxins, Gibberellins, Cytokinins, Ethylene, Abscisic acid, Seed Dormancy, Photoperiodism, Vernalisation.

Unit II Microbiology

Chapter 7 Bacteria
Morphology of Bacteria, Bacterial cell structure – Nutrition, Reproduction – Sexual Reproduction, Conjugation, Transformation, Transduction, The importance of Bacteria to Humans.

Chapter 8 Viruses
Discovery, Classification of Viruses, structure of Viruses, Multiplication of Bacteriophages – The Lysogenic Cycle, Viral diseases in Plants, Viral diseases in Humans.

Unit III Genetics

Chapter 9 Principles of Inheritance and Variation
Mendel’s Experiments, Inheritance of one gene (Monohybrid Cross) – Back cross and Test cross, Law of Dominance, Law of Segregation or Law of purity of gametes, Deviations from Mendelian concept of dominance – Incomplete Dominance, Co-dominance, Explanation of the concept of dominance, Inheritance of two genesLaw of Independent Assortment, Chromosomal Theory of Inheritance, Linkage and Recombination, Mutations – Significance of mutations.

Unit IV Molecular Biology

Chapter 10 Molecular Basis of inheritance
The DNA – Structure of Polynucleotide Chain, Packaging of DNA Helix, The Search for Genetic Material, Transforming Principle, Biochemical Characterisation of Transforming Principle, The Genetic Material is DNA, Properties of Genetic Material (DNA versus RNA), RNA World, Replication – The Experimental Proof, The Machinery and the Enzymes, Transcription – Transcription Unit, Transcription Unit and the Gene, Types of RNA and the process of Transcription, GeneticCodeMutations and Genetic Code, tRNA– the Adapter Molecule, Translation, Regulation of Gene Expression – The Lac operon.

Unit V Biotechnology

Chapter 11 Principles and Processes of Biotechnology
Principles of Biotechnology – Construction of the first artificial recombinant DNA molecule, Tools of Recombinant DNA Technology – Restriction Enzymes, Cloning Vectors, Competent Host (For Transformation with Recombinant DNA), Processes of Recombinant DNA Technology – Isolation of the Genetic Material (DNA), Cutting of DNA at Specific Locations, Separation and isolation of DNA fragments, Insertion of isolated gene into a suitable vector, Amplification of Gene of Interest using PCR, Insertion of Recombinant DNA into the Host, Cell/Organism, Selection of Transformed host cells, Obtaining the Foreign Gene Product, Downstream Processing.

Chapter 12 Biotechnology and it’s Applications
Biotechnological Applications In Agriculture – Bt Cotton, Pest Resistant Plants, Other applications of Biotechnology Insulin, Gene therapy, Molecular Diagnosis, ELISA, DNA fingerprinting, Transgenic plants, Bio-safety and Ethical issues – Biopiracy.

Unit VI Plants, Microbes and Human Welfare

Chapter 13 Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production
Plant Breeding – What is Plant Breeding?, Wheat and Rice, Sugarcane, Millets, Plant Breeding for Disease Resistance, Methods of breeding for disease resistance, Mutation, Plant Breeding for Developing Resistance to Insect Pests, Plant Breeding for Improved Food Quality, Single Cell Protein (SCP), Tissue Culture.

Chapter 14 Microbes in Human Welfare
Microbes in Household Products, Microbes in Industrial Products – Fermented Beverages, Antibiotics, Chemicals, Enzymes and other Bioactive Molecules, Microbes in Sewage Treatment, Primary treatment, Secondary treatment or Biological treatment, Microbes in Production of Biogas, Microbes as Biocontrol Agents, Biological control of pests and diseases, Microbes as Biofertilisers, Challenges posed by Microbes.

We hope that this Telangana & Andhra Pradesh BIEAP TS AP Intermediate Inter 2nd Year Botany Study Material Textbook Solutions Guide PDF Free Download 2022-2023 in English Medium and Telugu Medium helps the student to come out successful with flying colors in this examination. This Sr Inter 2nd Year Botany Study Material will help students to gain the right knowledge to tackle any type of questions that can be asked during the exams.

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