AP Inter 2nd Year Botany Notes Chapter 13 Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production

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AP Inter 2nd Year Botany Notes 13th Lesson Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production

→ Mutation breeding, Tissue culture and r-DNA technology play a pivotal role in enhancing food production.

→ The main steps in breeding a new genetic variety of a crop are
a) Collection of germplasm
b) Selection of parents
c) Cross hybridisation
d) Selection and testing of superior recombinants
e) Testing, release and commercialization of new cultivars.

→ In 1963, Sonalika and Kalyan Sona which were high yielding and disease resistant varieties of wheat were introduced.

→ Better yielding semi-dwarf varieties of Jay a and Ratna (rice) were developed in India.

→ Sacharum barberi and sacharum officinarum were successfully crossed to form high yielding variety.

→ In wheat, Himgiri variety was developed which was resistance to heat and stripe rust.

AP Inter 2nd Year Botany Notes Chapter 13 Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production

→ Resistance to yellow mosaic virus in bhendi (Abelmoschus) was developed as a new variety, Parbhani Kranti.

→ In Brassica, Pusa Gaurav was developed which have resistance against pest, Aphids.

→ Biofortification aims at breeding crops with higher levels of vitamins and minerals or higher protein and healthier fats to improve public health.

→ The IARI, New Delhi has released several vegetable crops that are rich in vitamins and minerals. Eg: Vitamin A enriched Carrots, Spinach, Pumpkin, Vitamin C enriched Bitter Gourd, Tomato, Iron and Calcium enriched Spinach, Protein enriched beans.

→ Microbes are grown on an Industrial scale as a source of good protein.

→ Microbes like Spirulina (Algae) can be grown on waste materials to produce large quantities of food, rich in Proteins, Minerals, Fats, Carbohydrates and Vitamins.

→ 250 gm of a microorganisms like Methylophilus methylotrophus can be expected to produce 25 tonnes of protein.

→ Culturing of cells or tissues in nutrient medium under sterile conditions is called tissue culture.

→ Any part of a plant taken out and grown in a test tube under sterile conditions in nutrient media is called explant.

AP Inter 2nd Year Botany Notes Chapter 13 Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production

→ The capacity of a cell to generate into a whole plant is called totipotency.

→ Different combinations of auxins and cytokinins produce roots and shoots which is called organo genesis.

→ Production of large number of plants in a very short time and in limited place is callead micro-propagation.

→ Isolated protoplasts are used to form novel plants called somatic hybrids.

→ A protoplast of tomato is fused with that a potato results in the formation of pomato.