Students can go through AP Inter 2nd Year Botany Notes 13th Lesson Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production will help students in revising the entire concepts quickly.
AP Inter 2nd Year Botany Notes 13th Lesson Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production
→ Mutation breeding, Tissue culture and r-DNA technology play a pivotal role in enhancing food production.
→ The main steps in breeding a new genetic variety of a crop are
a) Collection of germplasm
b) Selection of parents
c) Cross hybridisation
d) Selection and testing of superior recombinants
e) Testing, release and commercialization of new cultivars.
→ In 1963, Sonalika and Kalyan Sona which were high yielding and disease resistant varieties of wheat were introduced.
→ Better yielding semi-dwarf varieties of Jay a and Ratna (rice) were developed in India.
→ Sacharum barberi and sacharum officinarum were successfully crossed to form high yielding variety.
→ In wheat, Himgiri variety was developed which was resistance to heat and stripe rust.
→ Resistance to yellow mosaic virus in bhendi (Abelmoschus) was developed as a new variety, Parbhani Kranti.
→ In Brassica, Pusa Gaurav was developed which have resistance against pest, Aphids.
→ Biofortification aims at breeding crops with higher levels of vitamins and minerals or higher protein and healthier fats to improve public health.
→ The IARI, New Delhi has released several vegetable crops that are rich in vitamins and minerals. Eg: Vitamin A enriched Carrots, Spinach, Pumpkin, Vitamin C enriched Bitter Gourd, Tomato, Iron and Calcium enriched Spinach, Protein enriched beans.
→ Microbes are grown on an Industrial scale as a source of good protein.
→ Microbes like Spirulina (Algae) can be grown on waste materials to produce large quantities of food, rich in Proteins, Minerals, Fats, Carbohydrates and Vitamins.
→ 250 gm of a microorganisms like Methylophilus methylotrophus can be expected to produce 25 tonnes of protein.
→ Culturing of cells or tissues in nutrient medium under sterile conditions is called tissue culture.
→ Any part of a plant taken out and grown in a test tube under sterile conditions in nutrient media is called explant.
→ The capacity of a cell to generate into a whole plant is called totipotency.
→ Different combinations of auxins and cytokinins produce roots and shoots which is called organo genesis.
→ Production of large number of plants in a very short time and in limited place is callead micro-propagation.
→ Isolated protoplasts are used to form novel plants called somatic hybrids.
→ A protoplast of tomato is fused with that a potato results in the formation of pomato.
→ Strategies for enhancement of food production are developed due to rapid increase in World population.
→ Plant breeding and animal husbandry are two such major strategies.
→ New techniques like mutation breeding, tissue culture, rDNA technology play a vital role in enhancing food production.
→ Single Cell Protein (SCP) is an alternate protein source for animal and human nutrition from certain micro-organisms like Spirulina.
→ Tissue Culture: The technique of growing, culturing and maintaining cells, tissues & organs in vitro is known as tissue culture. |IPE|
→ Plant tissue culture techniques:
- Preparation of nutrient culture medium,
- Sterilization of the culture medium.
- Preparation of explant.
- Inoculation of explant.
- Incubation for growth
- Acclimatization of plantlets and transfer to pots.
→ Various steps to release new genetic variety of crop: [IPE]
- Collection of variability.
- Evaluation and selection of parents.
- Cross hybridisation among the selected parents.
- Selection and testing of superior recombinants.
- Testing, release and commercialization of new cultivars.
→ A true breeding plant is near homozygous and produces offspring of its own kind. [NEET-2016]
→ A system of rotating crops with legume or grass pasture to improve soil structure and fertility is called ley farming. [NEET- 2016]
→ A protoplast is a cell without cell wall [NEET-2015]
→ A technique of micropropagation is somatic embryogenesis. [NEET-2015]
→ An alga which can be employed as food for human being is Chlorella. [NEET-2014]
→ Somaclones are obtained by tissue culture. [2009 PMT]
→ ‘Jaya’ and ‘Ratna’ developed for Green revolution in India are the varieties of rice. [2011 PMT]
→ Golden Rice is “Vitamin A enriched, with a gene from daffodil”. [NEET-2019]
→ Mutations in plant cells can be induced by gamma rays. [NEET-2021]