Students can go through AP Inter 1st Year Zoology Notes 5th Lesson Locomotion and Reproduction in Protozoa will help students in revising the entire concepts quickly.
AP Inter 1st Year Zoology Notes 5th Lesson Locomotion and Reproduction in Protozoa
→ Locomotion is the movement of organism from one place to another.
→ Locomotion is a process that improves the efficiency of life in organisms.
→ Locomotion in the protozoans is brought about by the locomotor organelles like pseudopodia, flagella, cilia and myonemes.
→ Some flagella bear lateral appendages called flimmers or mastigonemes.
→ Pseudopodia are the temporary cytoplasmic extensions, flagella and cilia are the organelles.
→ Flagella are the locomotor organelles of the mastigophore protozoans.
→ Cilia are short hair like structures present all over the body surface or confined to specific regions of the ciliate protozoans.
→ Among the theories of amoeboid locomotion, sol-gel theory is advocated by Hyman.
→ Flagellum shows undulation movements and sidewish lash movement.
→ Cilium exhibit pendular movement, cilates are characteristic by neuromotor system.
→ Reproduction is an important life process of producing young ones of the same kind.
→ Reproduction is defined as a biological process in which an organism gives rise to young ones similar to itself.
→ Asexual reproduction in protozoans is by binary fission, multiple fission, budding, plasmotomy and sporulation.
→ Sexual reproduction takes place by the fusion of pronuclei with the formation of gametes or without the formation of gamates.
→ Sexual reproduction in protozoans is by syngamy, conjugation.
→ Conjugation is a temporary union between two ciliates belonging to two different mating types for the exchange and reconstitution of nuclear materials.
Ex : Paramoecium, Vorticella.
→ Asexual binary fission occurs only in the favourable conditions.
→ The significance of conjugation is nuclear organization, rejuvenation, occurrence of genetic varation and multiplication.
→ The other methods of nuclear reorganization – autogamy, cytogamy and endomixis.
→ Phototopism : It is the tendency of an organism to move towards or to move away from the source of light stimulus.
→ Oganelle : A living component of the cell with a specific structure and function, e.g.. Mitochondrion, Lysosome, Ribosome, Golgicomplex, etc.
→ Heliopodia : These are sunray-like pseudopodia present all over the surface of the body, as in ‘sun and nalcules’ (Actinophrys, Actionsphaerium).
→ Tubulin : A protein with which the microtubules of cytoskeleton are formed,
→ Kinetosome : it is a modified centriole from which the cilium and flagellum are formed.
→ Suctoria : Advanced ciliate protozoans, which possess suctorial tentacles in the adult condition and cilia in the juvenile stages, e.g. : Acineta.
→ Senile : Becoming old.
→ Nexin links : Proteins that connect the ‘A’ tubule of ope doublet with the ‘B’ tubule of the next doublet in a clockwise manner in an axoneme are called nexin links. They maintain the integrity of the axoneme by holding doublets together.
→ Locomotion is a voluntary movement from one place to another place insearch of food, shelter, mate and to escape from danger.
→ All locomotions are movements but all movements are not locomotions.
→ The method of locomotion differs from one group to other group of animals.
→ Reproduction is a biological process for perpetuation of species.
→ Types of Reproduction: (i) asexual reproduction (ii) sexual reproduction.
→ Flagellum is long whip like locomotor organelle whereas Cilium is small hair like structure.
→ Flagellum performs undular movement and cilia performs pendular movement. [IPE]
→ A longitudinal row of kinetosomes and their inter connecting kinetodesmata are collectively called kinety.
→ The proter is the anterior individual. It receives anterior contractile vacuole, cytopharynx and cytostome of parent. [IPE]
→ The opisthe is the posterior individual. It receives posterior contractile vacuoles and develop other organelle.
→ Blunt finger like pseudopodia are called Lobopodia. Ex: Amoeba, Entamoeba. [IPE]
→ Long and fibre like pseudopodia are called Filopodia. Ex: Euglypha [IPE]
→ Conjugation is a temporary union between two senile ciliates, that belong to different mating types, for the exchange of nuclear material and reorganization, to restore vigour and vitality. Ex: Paramecium and Vorticella. [IPE]
→ Lateral appendages: One or two or many rows of short, lateral hair like fibrils found on some flagella are called lateral appendages.
→ Types of Flagella: [IPE]
- Stichonematic: Ex: Euglena, Astasia.
- Pantonematic: Ex: Peranema and Monas
- Acronematic: Ex: Chlamydomonas and polytoma
- Pantacronematic: Ex: Urceolus
- Anematic (simple) : Ex: Chilomonas and cryptomonas