Students can go through AP Inter 1st Year Zoology Notes 5th Lesson Locomotion and Reproduction in Protozoa will help students in revising the entire concepts quickly.
AP Inter 1st Year Zoology Notes 5th Lesson Locomotion and Reproduction in Protozoa
→ Locomotion is the movement of organism from one place to another.
→ Locomotion is a process that improves the efficiency of life in organisms.
→ Locomotion in the protozoans is brought about by the locomotor organelles like pseudopodia, flagella, cilia and myonemes.
→ Some flagella bear lateral appendages called flimmers or mastigonemes.
→ Pseudopodia are the temporary cytoplasmic extensions, flagella and cilia are the organelles.
→ Flagella are the locomotor organelles of the mastigophore protozoans.
→ Cilia are short hair like structures present all over the body surface or confined to specific regions of the ciliate protozoans.
→ Among the theories of amoeboid locomotion, sol-gel theory is advocated by Hyman.
→ Flagellum shows undulation movements and sidewish lash movement.
→ Cilium exhibit pendular movement, cilates are characteristic by neuromotor system.
→ Reproduction is an important life process of producing young ones of the same kind.
→ Reproduction is defined as a biological process in which an organism gives rise to young ones similar to itself.
→ Asexual reproduction in protozoans is by binary fission, multiple fission, budding, plasmotomy and sporulation.
→ Sexual reproduction takes place by the fusion of pronuclei with the formation of gametes or without the formation of gamates.
→ Sexual reproduction in protozoans is by syngamy, conjugation.
→ Conjugation is a temporary union between two ciliates belonging to two different mating types for the exchange and reconstitution of nuclear materials.
Ex : Paramoecium, Vorticella.
→ Asexual binary fission occurs only in the favourable conditions.
→ The significance of conjugation is nuclear organization, rejuvenation, occurrence of genetic varation and multiplication.
→ The other methods of nuclear reorganization – autogamy, cytogamy and endomixis.
→ Phototopism : It is the tendency of an organism to move towards or to move away from the source of light stimulus.
→ Oganelle : A living component of the cell with a specific structure and function, e.g.. Mitochondrion, Lysosome, Ribosome, Golgicomplex, etc.
→ Heliopodia : These are sunray-like pseudopodia present all over the surface of the body, as in ‘sun and nalcules’ (Actinophrys, Actionsphaerium).
→ Tubulin : A protein with which the microtubules of cytoskeleton are formed,
→ Kinetosome : it is a modified centriole from which the cilium and flagellum are formed.
→ Suctoria : Advanced ciliate protozoans, which possess suctorial tentacles in the adult condition and cilia in the juvenile stages, e.g. : Acineta.
→ Senile : Becoming old.
→ Nexin links : Proteins that connect the ‘A’ tubule of ope doublet with the ‘B’ tubule of the next doublet in a clockwise manner in an axoneme are called nexin links. They maintain the integrity of the axoneme by holding doublets together.