Students can go through AP Inter 1st Year Chemistry Notes 11th Lesson The p-Block Elements – Group 14 will help students in revising the entire concepts quickly.
AP Inter 1st Year Chemistry Notes 11th Lesson The p-Block Elements – Group 14
→ Carbon (C), Silicon (Si), Germanium (Gc), Tin (Sn) and lead (pb) are group – 14 elements.
→ General outermost electronic configuration of these elements is ns2np2.
→ The common oxidation states exhibited by these elements are +4, +2 and carbon also exhibits negative oxidation states.
→ C, Si, Ge are not affected by water but Sn reacts with steam to form its dioxides.
→ Lead compounds in +2 state are more stable than in +4 state. This is due to inert pair effect.
→ The self linkage of atoms among themselves to form long chains and rings is called catenation. Carbon exhibits highest catenation tendency due to it’s high bond energy.
→ Diamond, graphite and fullerenes are crystalline allotropes of carbon.
→ In Diamond carbon undergoes sp3 hybridisation and it has 3 – dimensional structure.
→ In graphite carbon undergoes sp2 hybridisation and it has 2 – dimensional structure.
→ The structure of C60, Buck minster fiillerene is football shape.
→ Water gas is the mixture of CO and H2.
→ Producer gas is the mixture of CO and N2.
→ Solid CO2 is called as dry ice and it is used as refrigerant.
→ SiO2 is a three dimensional solid in which each ‘Si’ atoms surrounded by four oxygens tetrahedrally.
→ Silicones are organo silicon polymers which are prepared by the hydrolysis of chlorosilanes.
→ ZSM – 5 is used to convert alcohols directly into gasoline.