Andhra Pradesh BIEAP AP Inter 1st Year Botany Study Material 1st Lesson The Living World Textbook Questions and Answers.
AP Inter 1st Year Botany Study Material 1st Lesson The Living World
Very Short Answer Questions
What does ICBN Stand for? [T.S. Mar, 18]
ICBN stand for “International Code for Botanical Nomenclature”.
What is Flora? [T.S. Mar, 15]
Actual account of habitat, distribution and systematic listing of plants of a given area is called Flora.
Define metabolism. What is the difference between anabolism and catabolism?
Sum total of all the chemical reactions occuring in the body of an organism is called Metabolism.
|i) It is a constructive metabolic process||i) It is a destructive metabolic process.|
|ii) Complex molecules are formed from simple molecules by photosynthesis.||ii) Complex molecules are broken down into simple molecules by respiration.|
Which is the largest botanical garden in the world? Name a few well known botanical gardens in India.
Royal Botanical Garden (RBG) at kew (England) is the largest Botanical Garden in the world. Well Known Botanical gardens in India are
- Indian Botanical gardens, Howrah.
- National Botanical Research Institute, Lucknow.
Define the terms couplet and lead in taxonomic key. [A.P. Mar, 15]
The contrasting characters generally in a pair is called “couplet”. Each statement in the key is called “Lead”.
What is meant by manuals and monographs?
Manual is a small book specially designed for ready reference. Monographs contain Information on any one taxon.
What is systematics? [T.S. Mar, 18]
“The study of different kinds of organisms, their diversities and also the relationship among them”.
Why are living organisms classified?
Living organisms are classified to know their growth, reproduction, ability to sense environment and mount a suitable response, metabolism, ability to self replicate, interaction and emergence.
What is the basic unit of classification? Define it. [A.P. Mar, 17, 14, 13]
“Species is defined as a group of Individual organisms with fundamental similarities”.
Give the scientific name of Mango. Identify the generic name and specific epithet. [T.S. Mar, 17] [A.P. May, 18]
Mangifera indica. Its Generic name is “Mangifera” and specific epithet is “indica”.
What is growth? What is the difference between the growth in living organisms and growth in non-living objects?
Growth is a permanent and irreversible increase in the size of a living organism.
In Living organisms, growth is from Inside. Where as in Non-living objects like Mountains and sand mounds, growth occurs by accumulation on of material on the outer surface.
Short Answer Type Questions
What is meant by Identification and nomenclature? How is a key helpful in the identification & classification of an organism?
Identification is defined as, “Whether a collected organism is entirely new or already known”. Nomenclature is defined as “providing a scientific name to an Identified organism”.
Key is a taxonomical aid used for Identification of plants and animals based on the similarities and dissimilarities. The keys are based on the contrasting characters generally in a pair called couplet. It represents the choice made between two opposite options. Each statement in the key is called lead, separate taxonomic keys are required for each taxonomic category such as family, genus and species for Identification purposes. Keys are generally analytical in nature.
Flora, Manuals, Monographs, and catelogues are also help in correct Identification of plants of a given area.
What are taxonomical aids? Give the importance of herbaria and museums.
Taxonomical aids are the collection of actual specimens of plant and animal species which are useful in agriculture, forestry. Industry and in knowing bio-resources and their diversity.
Herbarium is a store house of collected plant specimens that are dried, pressed, and preserved on sheets. These sheets are used for future use and also carry a label providing information about data and place of collection, English, local and botanical names, family, collector’s name. Herbaria also serve as quick referal systems in taxonomical studies. Museums are generally set up in Educational Institutes. Museums have collections of preserved plant and animals specimens for study and reference.
Define a taxon. Give some examples of taxa at different hierarchial levels.
Taxon is defined as, Any unit of category in a Taxonomic system. There are different taxonomic levels such as
a) Species – It is the lowest category in which a group of Individual organisms w|th fundamental similarities are placed.
Example : Mangifera indica (Mango), indica is the specific epithet.
b) Genus – A group of related species which has more characters in common in comparison to species of other genera.
Example : Potato and brinjal are two different species but belong to the genus solanum.
c) Family – It has a group of related genera with still less number of similarities as compared to genus and species.
Example : Solanum, Nicotiana and Datura are three different genera but placed in the family solanaceae.
d) Order – It is the assemblage of families which exhibit a few similar characters.
Example : Based on the floral characters.Solanaceae and Convolvulaceae are included in the order polemoniales.
How are botanical gardens useful in conserving biodiversity? Define the terms Flora, manuals, monographs and catalogues?
Botanical gardens have collections of living plants for reference. Plant species in these gardens are grown for identification purposes and each plant is labelled indicating its botanical name and its family.
It contains the actual account of habitat, distribution and systematic listing of plants of a given area.
It is a small book containing the information for identification of names of species found in an area.
They contain information on any one taxon.
Books which help in correct identification of plants.
Explain binomial nomenclature.
Naming the plants with two words is called Binomial nomenclature. This system was given by Carolus Linnaeus. Naming is done by following some rules. They are
- Biological names are generally in Latin and written in Italics.
- The first word represents the Genus while the second word represents the species.
- Both the words, when handwritten, are separately underlined.
- The first word should starts with a capital letter while second word should starts with a small letter.
- The name of the auther should be at the end of scientific name in abbreviated form.
Long Answer Type Questions
What is meant by living? Give a detailed account of any four defining features of life forms.
The state of Material complex or individual characterized by the capacity to perform certain functional activities including metabolism, growth, and Reproduction.
1) Growth :
All living organisms increase in mass and increase in number. In plants, growth occurs by cell division, continuously throughout their life span. Unicellular organisms also grow in size until they divide by cell division.
2) Reproduction :
“Reproduction means progeny possessing feautures more or less similar to those of parents organisms, reproduce asexually and also by sexual methods. Fungi reproduce asexually by spores. Filamentous algae and Protonema of mosses reproduce by Fragmentation. In unicellular oganisms like Bacteria, unicellular algae or Amoeba reproduction is synonymous with growth. There are many organisms which do not reproduce. Hence reproduction also cannot be an all-inclusive defining characterestic of living organisms.
3) Metabolism :
The sum total of all the chemical reaction occuring in the body of a living organisms is called metabolism. All plants, Animals, Fungi and Microbes exhibit metabolism. No nonliving obejct exhibit metabolism.
4) Ability to sense their surroundings :
All living organisms, have the ability to sense their surroundings or environment and respond to Physical, Chemical or Biological stimuli. This response to environmental stimuli is called Irritability. Plants respond to external factors like light, water, temperature other organisms, pollutants etc. All organismsare aware of their surroundings and is called consciousness. Human beings has self consciousness except patients.
Define the following terms with examples.
i) Class ii) Family iii) Order iv) Genus v) Division
i) Class :
A group of related orders constitutes class.
Ex : In plant kingdom, orders like Malvales, Rosales, Polemoniales are included in the class
ii) Family :
A group of related Genera’ is called family. They are characterised on the basis of both vegetative and reproductive features of plant species.
Ex : Solanum, Nicotiana and Datura are three different Genera but are placed in the family Solanaceae.
iii) Order :
Assemblage of families which exhibit a few similar characters is called order.
Ex : Families like convolvualeceae, Solanaceae are included in the order polemoniales based on the floral characters.
iv) Genus :
A groupo of related species which has more characters in common in comparison to species of other Genera is called Genus.
Ex : Potato (tuberosum) and Brinjal (melongena) are two different species but are placed in the same Genus, ‘Solanum’.
v) Divsion :
‘A group of related .classes’ is called Division.
Ex : Dicotyledonae and Monocotyl’edonae are two classes with a few similar characters are placed in Division spermatophyta.
Some of the properties of tissues are not constituents of their cells. Give two examples to support the statement.
- Properties of tissues arise as a result of Interactions among the constituent cells.
- Properties of cellular organelles arise as a result of Interactions among the molecular components comprising the organelle.
What do we learn from identification of individuals and populations?
It is the prime source of taxonomic studies and also knows about or bioresources and their diversity.
Given below is the scientific name of Mango. Identify the correctly written name.
Can you identify the correct sequence of taxonomical categories?
a) Species, Order, Division, Kingdom
b) Genus, Species, Order, Kingdom
c) Species, Genus, Order, Phylum
C is correct.
Define the following terms :
i) Species ii) Class iii) Family iv) order v) Genus.
i) Species :
A group of Individual organisms with fundamental similarities.
ii) Class :
An assemblage of related orders is called class.
iii) Family :
A group of related genera with less number of similarities as compared to genus and species.
iv) order :
An assemblage of families.
v) Genus :
A group of related species which has more characters in comparison to species of other Genera.
Illustrate the taxonomical hierarchy with suitable example of a plant.
Kingdom = Plant kingdom
Division = Spermatophyta
Class = Dicotyledonae
Order = Sapindales
Family = Anacardiaceae
Genus = Mangifera
Species = Indica
What are the distinctive characteristics exhibited by living organisms? Describe them in brief.
Growth, reproduction, ability to sense environment, Metabolism, ability to self duplicate.
Increase in mass and Increase in number of Individuals.
It is the production of progeny possessing features more or less similar to those of parents.
It is the sum total of all the chemical reactions occurring in the body of an organism.
Life forms exhibit ‘unity in diversity’ – Discuss with your teacher.
An important aspect of life is its vast diversity built on a base of underlying unity. For example, organisms as outwardly dissimilar as a bacterium, a human and an Oak tree are all composed of the same basic structural element, the cell, which in turn have many similar subcellular and molecular components.
List out the principles followed to provide scientific names for newly found organism?
- Identification of organisms whether it is entirely new or already known.
- Particular organism should be named by same name all over the world. Thus nomenclature is providing a scientific name to an identified organism.