Students can go through AP Inter 1st Year Botany Notes 10th Lesson Biomolecules will help students in revising the entire concepts quickly.
AP Inter 1st Year Botany Notes 10th Lesson Biomolecules
→ The relative abundance of carbon, Hydrogen with respect to other elements is higher in any living organism than in Earth’s crust.
→ All the carbon compounds that we get from living tissues are called ‘Biomolecules’.
→ Organic constituents in a living tissue are Amino – acids, nucleotide bases and fatty acids.
→ Aminoacids are organic compounds containing an amino group and an acidic group as substitutions on the same carbon i.e., α-carbon, so called α-amino acids.
→ Based on number of amino and carboxyl groups, Aminoacids are Acidic (glutamic acid), basic (lysine) and Neutral (Valine).
→ Lipids are generally water insoluble.
→ Lipids are in the form of Fatty acids, Glycolipids and phospholipids.
→ Nitrogen bases are adenine, guanine, cytosine, uracil and thymine (Nucleosides).
→ Adenylic acid, thymidylic acid, guanylic acid, uridylic acid and cytedylic acid are nucleotides.
→ Aminoacids, sugars are primary metabolities.
→ Alkaloids, flavinoides, rubber, antibiotics, scents gums are secondary metabolites.
→ Chemical compounds which have molecular weights less than one thousand Daltons are called micromolecules or simply Bimolecules. ‘
→ Chemical compounds which are found in the acid insoluble fraction are called macro or Biomacromolecules.
→ Proteins are polypeptides. Each protein is a polymer of amino acids.
→ Dietary proteins are the source of essential aminoacids.
→ Collagen is the most abundant protein in animal world, RUBISCO is the most abundant protein in the whole of the Biosphere.
→ Polysacha,rides are long chains of sugars. They are threads containing different Monosacharides as building blocks.
→ Cellulose is a Homopolymer.
Ex : Cotton fibre.
→ For Nucleic Acids, the buildiing block is a nucleotide.
→ A nucleotide has Nitrogen base + Sugar + Phosphate group.
→ The sequence of aminoacids i.e., the positional information in a protein is called the primary structure.
→ Of protein threads are folded into other forms called secondary structure.
→ The long protein chain folded like a hollow woolen ball called Tertiary structure.
→ In a protein, aminoacids are linked by peptide bond. In a polysacharide, the mono – sacharides are linked by glycosidic Bond.
→ DNA exhibit a secondary structure.
Ex : Watson and Crick model.
→ Every chemical reaction is a catalysed reaction.
→ The most important form of energy in living systems is ATP.
→ ATP : Adenosine triphosphate, often described as energy currency of the cell.
→ Bioenergetics : Subject dealing with energy conversions in living cells.
→ Biomacro molecules : Acid insoluble, high molecular weight substances of the living tissue.
→ Biomolecules : All the carbon compounds obtained from a living tissue.
→ Essential amino acids : Amino acids that have to be supplied through diet and essential for , our health.
→ Glycosidic bond : Bond involving carbons of adjacent sugar molecules.
→ Metabolism : All chemical reactions occurring in living organisms.
→ Nucleic acids : Polymers of nucleotides.
→ Peptide bond : Bond between amino acids in a protein.
→ Polysaccharides : Long chains biopolymers of sugar molecules.
→ Secondary metabolites : Metabolic products that do not have identifiable functions in the host organism,
→ Tertiary structure of proteins : 3D structure of protein essential for biological activity.