AP Inter 1st Year Botany Notes Chapter 10 Biomolecules

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AP Inter 1st Year Botany Notes 10th Lesson Biomolecules

→ The relative abundance of carbon, Hydrogen with respect to other elements is higher in any living organism than in Earth’s crust.

→ All the carbon compounds that we get from living tissues are called ‘Biomolecules’.

→ Organic constituents in a living tissue are Amino – acids, nucleotide bases and fatty acids.

→ Aminoacids are organic compounds containing an amino group and an acidic group as substitutions on the same carbon i.e., α-carbon, so called α-amino acids.

→ Based on number of amino and carboxyl groups, Aminoacids are Acidic (glutamic acid), basic (lysine) and Neutral (Valine).

→ Lipids are generally water insoluble.

→ Lipids are in the form of Fatty acids, Glycolipids and phospholipids.

→ Nitrogen bases are adenine, guanine, cytosine, uracil and thymine (Nucleosides).

AP Inter 1st Year Botany Notes Chapter 10 Biomolecules

→ Adenylic acid, thymidylic acid, guanylic acid, uridylic acid and cytedylic acid are nucleotides.

→ Aminoacids, sugars are primary metabolities.

→ Alkaloids, flavinoides, rubber, antibiotics, scents gums are secondary metabolites.

→ Chemical compounds which have molecular weights less than one thousand Daltons are called micromolecules or simply Bimolecules. ‘

→ Chemical compounds which are found in the acid insoluble fraction are called macro or Biomacromolecules.

→ Proteins are polypeptides. Each protein is a polymer of amino acids.

→ Dietary proteins are the source of essential aminoacids.

→ Collagen is the most abundant protein in animal world, RUBISCO is the most abundant protein in the whole of the Biosphere.

→ Polysacha,rides are long chains of sugars. They are threads containing different Monosacharides as building blocks.

→ Cellulose is a Homopolymer.
Ex : Cotton fibre.

AP Inter 1st Year Botany Notes Chapter 10 Biomolecules

→ For Nucleic Acids, the buildiing block is a nucleotide.

→ A nucleotide has Nitrogen base + Sugar + Phosphate group.

→ The sequence of aminoacids i.e., the positional information in a protein is called the primary structure.

→ Of protein threads are folded into other forms called secondary structure.

→ The long protein chain folded like a hollow woolen ball called Tertiary structure.

→ In a protein, aminoacids are linked by peptide bond. In a polysacharide, the mono – sacharides are linked by glycosidic Bond.

→ DNA exhibit a secondary structure.
Ex : Watson and Crick model.

→ Every chemical reaction is a catalysed reaction.

→ The most important form of energy in living systems is ATP.

→ ATP : Adenosine triphosphate, often described as energy currency of the cell.

→ Bioenergetics : Subject dealing with energy conversions in living cells.

→ Biomacro molecules : Acid insoluble, high molecular weight substances of the living tissue.

→ Biomolecules : All the carbon compounds obtained from a living tissue.

AP Inter 1st Year Botany Notes Chapter 10 Biomolecules

→ Essential amino acids : Amino acids that have to be supplied through diet and essential for , our health.

→ Glycosidic bond : Bond involving carbons of adjacent sugar molecules.

→ Metabolism : All chemical reactions occurring in living organisms.

→ Nucleic acids : Polymers of nucleotides.

→ Peptide bond : Bond between amino acids in a protein.

→ Polysaccharides : Long chains biopolymers of sugar molecules.

→ Secondary metabolites : Metabolic products that do not have identifiable functions in the host organism,

→ Tertiary structure of proteins : 3D structure of protein essential for biological activity.