AP State Syllabus 9th Class Social Studies Solutions 21st Human Rights and Fundamental Rights
9th Class Social Studies 21st Lesson Human Rights and Fundamental Rights Textbook Questions and Answers
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Which of the following is not an instance of an exercise of a fundamental right
a) Workers from Bihar go to Punjab to work on the farms
b) Religious minority set up a chain of schools
c) Men and women government employees get the same salary
d) Parents’ property is inherited by their children
d) Parents’ property is inherited by their children
Which of the following freedoms is not available to an Indian citizen?
a) Freedom to criticise the government
b) Freedom to participate in armed revolution
c) Freedom to start a movement to change the government
d) Freedom to oppose the central values of the Constitution
b) Freedom to participate in armed revolution
Which of these statements about the relationship between democracy and rights is more valid? Give reasons for your preference.
a) Every country that is a democracy gives rights to its citizens.
b) Every country that gives rights to its citizens is a democracy.
c) Giving rights is good, but it is not necessary for a democracy.
I prefer the first sentence. The reasons are –
- All democratic countries ensure certain rights to its citizens.
- Rights are reasonable claims of the people.
- Democratic governments strive to preserve equal ground for all.
- During the early days of modern history, all despotic governments granted certain rights to the people. That was done under great pressure.
- Therefore every country that gives rights to its citizens is not a democratic.
c) The rights are so important that they are also expressed by many democratic countries and codified by the UNO and find first place in the universal declaration of human rights. Hence it is necessary for democracy to give rights.
Are these restrictions on the right to freedom justified? Give reasons for your answer.
a) Indian citizens need permission to visit some border areas of the country for reasons of security.
b) Outsiders are not allowed to buy property in some areas to protect the interest of the local population.
c) The government bans the publication of a book that can go against the ruling party in the next elections.
- Yes, it is justifiable.
- It is the responsibility of the government to protect the life of the people.
- Border areas are high risk areas and tension always persists there.
- Hence permission is necessary.
- No, not justifiable.
- People in democracy have freedom to reside in any part of India.
- Hence, this statement is against the fundamental rules.
- But, there is one clause in our Constitution itself, that we cannot buy property in the state of Jammu and Kashmir.
- So Jammu and Kashmir is an exemption to the fundamental rule.
- No, not justifiable.
- Democracies grant civil liberties to its citizens.
- Under civil liberties, we can express our ideas through media or books.
- But generally, government bans certain books in order to avoid internal tensions.
Look through this chapter and the previous one and make a list of the six Fundamental Rights in the Constitution.
What are fundamental rights? How are these helping us to live better?
Write any four fundamental rights enjoyed by the citizens of India.
There are six fundamental rights. They are :
- Right to equality
- Right to freedom
- Right to religious freedom
- Right against exploitation
- Right to education and culture
- Right to constitutional remedies.
Fundamental rights protect the liberties and freedom of the citizens against any invasion by the state, prevent the establishment of the authoritarian and dictatorial rule in the country. They are very essential for the all-round development of the individuals and the country.
Are the Fundamental Rights being violated in each of the following cases? If so, which Fundamental Right or Rights? Discuss with your classmates.
a) Suppose a person is kept in a police station for 4 days without being told the reasons, which law was broken?
b) Suppose your neighbor tries to claim some of your land as her own.
c) Suppose your parents do not allow you to go to school. They make you take up a job in a match factory instead because they cannot afford to feed you properly.
d) Suppose your brother refuses to give you the land that you have inherited from your father.
- In the first case, arresting a person without proper reason and keeping in a police station for 4 days is against the fundamental rights.
- “Rights to life” and personal liberty ensures that “no one can be arrested without being told the grounds for his arrest.
- “Hebeaus Corpus” writ protects the individuals from the arrest.
- Occupation of one’s land by another is not a violation of fundamental rights.
- Right to property is a legal right.
- Not allowing a child to go to school is definitely violation of fundamental right.
- “Right to education” is a part of “right to life”.
- Government is responsible for providing free and compulsory education to all the children up to the age of 6 to 14 years.
- Refusal on part of your brother to give you land that you inherited is not violation of fundamental rights.
- Right to property is a legal right and civil courts will solve the problem.
Suppose you are an advocate. How would you argue the case for a group of people who come to you with the following request:
“The river in our area is getting very polluted by the factories upstream. We get our drinking water from the river. People in our villages keep falling ill because of the polluted water. We have complained to the government but there has been no action from their side. This is surely a violation of our Fundamental Rights.” ;
- Being an advocate I would like to file a writ in the court for the interests of the public.
- This is surely a violation of our fundamental rights.
- Hence I argue the case in such a way that immediately stay order would be issued to close down the factory.
- When the government did not respond to our complaints, courts would definitely safeguard our interests.
Read the paragraph under the heading ‘Abolition of Title’ and answer the following question:
Abolition of Title:
In another move to remove arbitrary and unequal classification of the aristocratic class and the bourgeoise, the Constitution prohibits the State from conferring any titles. The British government had created an aristocratic class known as Rao Bahadurs and Khan Bahadurs in India -these titles were also abolished. Citizens of India cannot accept titles from a foreign State. However, military and academic distinctions can be conferred on the citizens of India. The awards like the Bharat Ratna, the Paramveer Chakra, and the Padma Vibhushan cannot be used by the recipient as a title and do not, accordingly, come within the constitutional prohibition.
The awards can’t be used by the recipient as a title. Why?
- In order to remove arbitrary and unequal classification of the aristocracy and middle class, the constitution prohibits the state from conferring any titles.
- Hence the awards like the Bharat Ratna, the Padma Vibhushan cannot be used by the recipients as a title.
Analyse an incident you know about where the Fundamental Rights are violated.
- The 1984 Anti-Sikh Riots was a four-day period during which sikhs were massacred by members of the secular-centrist Congress party of India, some estimates that more than 2000 were killed. (Religious violation)
- Dalits and indigeneous peoples continue to face discrimination, exclusion and acts of communal violence.
- Narco analysis test (against to the Indian constitution), “nobody may be made a witness against himself, etc.
Invite a senior advocate into your classroom and collect the following information by conducting an interview.
– violation of fundamental rights and its consequences
– violation of children rights
– ways of struggle for rights in democracy
– any other related
Students : Good morning sir.
Advocate : Good morning children.
Students : Sir, today we are going to known about the fundamental rights and importance of other rights from you sir.
Advocate : Yes, children, I will explain. What do you know about.
Students : Sir what will happen, if we violate fundamental rights.
Advocate : Courts will punish us.
Students : Sir please explain one example?
Advocate : If any person is created a nusence in the public places, he created inconvience to the freedom of other people. Then the police arrested that person and kept in the prision.
Students : What will happen when violate the children’s rights?
Advocate : Children are the tomorrow’s citizens generally 6-14 years age is considred as children. So that age children should be in school. But if they did not go to school and work in any where the owner will punish by government / court. Parents should provide education to their children. That is their fundamental right.
Students : Sir what are the ways to struggle for rights in democracy?
Advocate : Students in a democracy always we are fighting for our rights. We will achieve our rights in a peaceful manner. So movements will be in a democratic manner not in a violent manner. These are in through petitions, strikes etc.
Students : Sir please explain any other related issues.
Advocate : Children fundamental rights are provided by our constitution. We will enjoy that not violate and not create any inconvienient to others it will we create any we will punish by government and lost our valuable future also.
Students : Thank you sir.
Advocate : Ok children. Bye.
9th Class Social Studies 21st Lesson Human Rights and Fundamental Rights InText Questions and Answers
Write a few important features of Preamble you studied last year. (Text Book Page No. 256)
The Preamble is the heart and soul of our constitution. The important features are –
- The Preamble starts with the words “We the people of India”. This ensures that sovereignty vests with the people.
- It also confirms or ensures justice, equality, liberty, and fraternity to all its citizens.
- It declares our country as sovereign, socialistic, secular, democratic, republic. Each of the words have different meaning.
What kinds of rights to equality does the Constitution ensure? Give examples. (Text Book Page No. 259)
The Constitution ensures the following rights to equality to its citizens.
- Equal protection of law * The laws apply to all in the same manner, regardless of a person’s income, status, background, etc.
- Social Equality – The state condemns any sort of discriminations of human beings.
- Equality of opportunity – The constitution guarantees equality of opportunity for all citizens regarding education or employment.
- Abolition of untouchability.
- Abolition of titles – In order to remove inequalities “Titles” of any sort are abolished.
What would happen if the Fundamental Right to Equality was not in the Constitution? Discuss. (Text Book Page No. 259)
- Democratic systems preserve equal grounds for all.
- Democracies work on the principle of equality which is also known as “rule of law”.
- If the fundamental “Right to equality” was not in the Constitution, the very essence of democracy would be lost.
What associations are there in your area? (Text Book Page No. 261)
There are so many associations in my area. Some of them are –
- Teachers Associations
- Workers Association
- Foremen’s Association
- Students’ Associations
- Auto – Rickshaw Association
- Trade Union Associations
- Rice Millers’ Associations
- Fishermen’s Associations, etc.
Why are workers’ unions formed? What problems do they face? (Text Book Page No. 261)
Workers unions are formed to protect the rights of workers and to solve their problems. These unions hold meetings to discuss their problems and take their demands to the officers of the factory. The following are their problems.
a) Their working conditions will not be healthy.
b) Salaries, dearness allowances, pensions, etc., will not be paid to them in time.
c) Sometimes their services will not be regularised.
d) They will not provide any educational facilities to their children of the factory workers.
e) Medical reimbursement, generally, not given to them.
Why do people want to move and settle in various parts of the country? (Text Book Page No. 261)
In search of job opportunities people move and settle in various parts of the country.
What do you remember about the difference between the role of the police and that of the court? (Text Book Page No. 262)
- Police generally file a case on any person who had committed a crime.
- He has to submit the accused in the case before the court.
- The court decides whether a person is guilty or not. And finally gives judgement.
What are the different types of schools you see in your area? Why do you think are there such different types of schools? (Text Book Page No. 262)
There are the following types of schools
Basing on the management –
- Zilla Parishad School
- Mandal Parishad Schools
- Government Schools
- Social Welfare Schools
- Tribal Welfare Schools
- Government aided schools
- Private Schools
Basing on the classes –
- Primary Schools (I class to 5th class)
- Upper Primary Schools (1st class to 7th class)
- High Schools (6th class to 10th class)
The children, whose parents are rich and can afford private school, go to private schools. And rest of the children generally go to government schools.
Can anyone not follow any religion if he/she wishes? (Text Book Page No. 263)
No, everyone can follow whatever religion they want. “Right to religious freedom” is our fundamental right.
State some instances of violations of Human Rights. (Text Book Page No. 266)
- Arbitrary arrests
- Denial of right to information and corruption
- Sexual cruelty
- Rape of women
- Delay in investigation of crimes
- Female infanticide
- Kidnapping for ransom
- Deplorable conditions of women, children and downtrodden people
- Discrimination against women in the family
- Cruelty to domestic servants
The above are some instances of the violations of human rights. These violations continue unchecked because people are not aware of their human rights.
Read the passage and answer the following questions. (Text Book Page No. 262)
The Constitution states, “no child below the age of 14 shall be employed to work in any factory or mines or engaged in any other hazardous employment.” Accordingly, laws have been made that prohibit children from making matches, crackers, beedis, and carpets, or doing printing and dyeing, etc.
Do you think this right has been made available to children in the villages and cities in your area?
There are number of children who are still working in small scale industries like dyeing, printing, beedi making etc.
Discuss whether you think each of the following is a violation of the Fundamental Right to Equality, Also discuss whether you think it is constitutionally right or wrong to do such things. (Text Book Page No. 259)
- While filling water from a public source, some people object if the vessel of another person touches their pots.
- Some communities are never provided a place to live within the village but always outside.
- In some schools, certain children are not allowed to serve water because they belong to a particular caste.
- Members of some communities do not go to many places of worship because they fear that they will be ill treated or beaten up.
- The above examples are the clear evidences of practice of untouchability.
- The practice of untouchability is a crime.
- Anyone doing so is punishable under law.
With the help ofthe teacher find out the minimum wages in your state. (Text Book Page No. 262)
Minimum wages were received by the people in different sector in our state.
Male – Rs. 200 (per day) – Female – Rs. 150 (per day)
Teacher – Rs. 300 to 2000 (per day).
Male – Rs. 180 (per day)
Female – Rs. 120 (per day)
Male – Rs. 300 (per day)
Female – Rs. 180 (per day)
How does the practice of “Sati” violate fundamental rights? (Text Book Page No. 263)
- No citizen can be denied his life and liberty except by law.
- “The right to life” does not include “the right to die”, and hence suicide, forced death or sati, etc. are offences.
- “Sati”, hence, is violation of fundamental right of “the right to live”.
What is the responsibility of the government towards workers who are able to find some work, in the city but don’t have a proper place to live? (Text Book Page No. 261)
- Our Government has introduced subsidised housing schemes to the people of below poverty line.
- Under urban basic schemes, Indira Aavas Yojana, Rajiv Gruha Yojana, etc., so many people acquired houses.
- They are constructed in the prime localities of the cities.
- Most of the slums in the cities were removed.
- Development is still going on in this regard.
Write a petition to the NHRC if you know any instances of human rights violation in your area. (Text Book Page No. 266)
Is there a State Human Rights Commission in our state? Find out about its activities. (Text Book Page No. 266)
Yes, there is a State Human Rights Commission in our state.
A Human Rights Commission, also known as a Human Relations Commission is a body set up to investigate, promote or protect human rights.
Its activities are
- Inquire into any violation of human rights.
- Look into negligence in the prevention of human rights violation by a public servant.
- They can take cognizance either sumotu or on a petition presented to it or on an order of a court.
- They intervene in any proceeding involving allegation of violation of human rights pending before a court etc.