AP State Syllabus 9th Class Social Studies Solutions 18th Impact of Colonialism in India
9th Class Social Studies 18th Lesson Impact of Colonialism in India Textbook Questions and Answers
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How did people use the forests before the rule of the British? Why was there less danger of the forests being fully destroyed in those days?
- The adivasis used forests for hunting, gathering tubers, fruits, flowers and herbs and for gazing their cattle.
- They cut wood, cleared the land to cultivate crops.
- They cut trees to build their homes etc.
- They did not blindly cut large tracts of forests but only small patches.
- They cut only old trees and allowed new trees to grow.
Therefore there was less danger of the forests being fully destroyed in those days.
Against whom did the adivasis revolt? In what ways did they demonstrate their anger and protest? Give some examples.
- The Adivasis revolted against the police department, the forest department and the moneylenders.
- During the protests they would burn down many police stations, posts of the forest department and houses of the moneylenders.
- In many places they would set fire to the entire jungle.
- The revolt of Santhals of Jharkhand in 1856, the Koya revolt of A.P. in 1880 and 1922, the revolt of the Maria and Muria of Bastar in 1910, etc. were some of the revolts of adivasis.
How were the revolts of the adivasis suppressed by the British?
- In most of the revolts the leaders were arrested and were kept behind bars,
e.g.: Birsa Munda died in prison in 1900.
- The leaders were traped and shot dead by the Britishers,
e.g.: Sita Rama Raju of A.P.
- The Adivasis were armed only with bows and arrows.
- They could not stand before the gun-bearing British army.
e.g. : In a fierce battle 15000 Santhals were killed and their revolt was finally suppressed.
Make a timeline to show when adivasi protests occurred in different parts of India.
|1. Santhal adivasi revolt||Jharkhand||1856|
|2. Koya adivasi revolt||Andhra Pradesh||1880 and 1922|
|3. Maria and Muria adivasis revolt||Bastar||1910|
|4. Munda adivasi revolt||Chhotanagapur Plateau (Now in Jharkhand)||Between 1874 and 1901|
What problems did the Indian industrialists have with the British government?
The problems of the Indian industrialists during the British government were –
- The British government had levied a special tax on cloth made by Indian weavers in order to help the cloth industry of Britain.
- The British government refused to levy the similar tax on the British cloth.
- Later the government levied a 3 /2% tax on the British goods and the same tax was levied on the cloth made in India too.
- With this the British government made it clear that it would protect mainly the interests of the British factories.
During British rule, why was it easier for the European companies rather than Indian companies to set up industries? Give a few reasons.
- Indian industry had got a little help from the British government.
- A very large number of factories, banks, ships etc., were in the hands of Europeans, not in the hands of Indians.
- British industries had easy access to all types of officers and authorities of the British government, whereas Indians never had such reach.
- All the foreign trade was in the hands of European companies, hence, they had no shortage of funds.
Labour laws were first made for child labourers, then for women and lastly for men. Why were these laws made in this order?
- The first Factory Act in 1881 made rules especially for the welfare of the children.
- As the children are tender hence the first priority was given for the welfare and regularized their working hours and children below 7 years were restricted to work in factories.
- In 1891, laws were made in the interest of women labour as they are sensitive when compared with men.
- Lastly in 1911, the working hours of men were regularised.
How could education affect industrial development ? Discuss in the class.
- Industrial development needs a lot of educational workers and officers at all levels.
We need lot of technicians, scientists, engineers, management personnels, lot of support system etc.
Previously lack of “technical know how” led to the establishment of factories with foreign collaboration
Now due to education affect, we are technically skillful and can establish industries without any foreign collaboration.
Identify the large industrial cities on outline map of India during 20th century.
Find out where each of these adivasi struggles took place, and mark their locations on a map of India.
- Chotanagpur Plateau
Read the para under the title ‘Adivasi Revolts’ on page 222 and comment on it.
Adivasi Revolts :
We have seen how the conditions of the adivasi farmers who lived in the jungle worsened in British times. The Baiga, Muria, Gond and Bhil tribes of Madhya Pradeshand Chattisgarh, the Koya, Reddy, and Kolam tribes of Andhra Pradesh and the Saora adivasis of Orissa, were all no longer able to practice their old form of cultivation. They were having to become labourers for either the Forest Department or for contractors. Or they were becoming bonded labourers for moneylenders or farmers who had come from outside.
- As soon as the British took over Eastern India, tribal revolts broke out to challenge the alien rule.
- In the early years of colonization, no other community in India offered such heroic resistance to British rule or faced such tragic consequences as did the numerous Adivasi communities.
- As punishment for Adivasi resistance to British rule, ‘The Criminal Tribes Act’ was passed by the British Government in 1871.
- As the freedom movement widened, it drew adivasis into all aspects of the struggle.
Visit an office of the Forest Department and interview the official on how forest could be preserved and wisely used by both industries and local people.
Interview with Forest Ofiicer :
Student (S) : “Good Morning Sir, tell us about your eduction.”
Forest Officer (F.O) : “I was a village man. After completing my graduation, I appeared for the APPSC. Later I got selected and trained at Dehardun. I was appointed in forests in East Godavari Dist.
Student : Sir, elaborate upon your works as a Forest Officer.”
Forest Officer : “My work involved preservation of forest. As a Forest Officer it is my duty to safeguard the forests. Today, the world’s demand for timber and paper continues to grow. As we lose the forest, we also lose the habitat for many species, including human tribes.”
Student : “What precautions should we take to preserve the forests ?”
Forest Officer : 1. The government should ban the import of illegally logged timber.
2. The people should use less paper and wood.
3. People should invest in forest communities.
Student : “How can the forests be used wisely by both industries and local people ?”
Forest Officer : “Fine, there are certain things that everyone of us can do.
1. We should plant new trees.
2. We should practise the 3Rs. ‘Reduce, Reuse and Recycle’.
Reduce the amount of products of trees.
Reuse the items of forests, use the recycling process for some items.
3. Harvesting trees to create young regrowing forest in the place of cut forests.
4. We should keep all wildlife in our minds.
Student : “Thank you Sir, you gave us good information. Bye, sir”
Forest Officer : “Very good my boy. God bless you.”
Visit a nearby factory in your area find out its history how has the technology changed, where do the workers come from, try and talk to the employers and some workers to get their views.
We have visited Sri Padmavathi Polymers.
Sri K. Chalapathi Rao and Sri C.V. Narasimha Rao are the partners of this factory. The factory was established in the year 2007. There are 50 employees in this factory. They are manufacturers and suppliers of Thermocol Boxes like EPS box, Apple box, Fish box, etc.
They import the thermocol balls from some other country. They heat these balls and mould them in different shapes.
The employers are present in the factory when we visit it. We met Smt. Subhadra, Accountant there. They are very happy to work there. They said that the facilities arranged by the authorities were well. There are shift duties in the factory. Women workers work during the day time only. The salary structures are also fine. They have eight working hours a day. We observe the surroundings in the factory. They are neat and clean. They grow plants for fresh air.
9th Class Social Studies 18th Lesson Impact of Colonialism in India InText Questions and Answers
Discuss what “Protected market” means. (Text Book Page No. 225)
- “Protected Market” is the policy according to which goods made in a specific area be protected from foreign goods.
- Protection is given to the indigeneous goods by levying tax on imports. Thereby free incoming of imports is restricted to protect local markets.
- Indian markets were not protected during the British rule.
The Indians demanded that a tax be imposed on British goods coming to India.
1) Do you think this was a fair demand? (Text Book Page No. 225)
2) Should the government have treated British and Indian industries equally?
- Yes, Indians’ demand of taxing the British goods coming to India was a fair demand.
- Yes, the government should have treated British and Indian industries equally.
Why did a rapid development take place in Indian industry during the First World War? (Text Book Page No. 226)
- During the First World War, the import of foreign goods into India fell sharply.
- Cargo ships were diverted to war related duties, and hence there was a shortage of ships.
- The factories of Europe produced things needed for the war.
- So under these circumstances, the factories in India started selling their goods in greater quantities.
- Enthused by these heavy sales there was a rapid development of industries.
What industries were established in India during British rule? (Text Book Page No. 227)
- From 1850 onwards, machine based industries had begun to set up in India.
- The biggest industry was the spinning and weaving of textiles.
- The jute industry also developed during this peirod.
- The greatest example of the achievements of Indian industrialists was the setting up of a steel factory at Jamshedpur in 1907.
What were the difficulties in the development of Indian industries at the time of Independence? (Text Book Page No. 227)
- Tax levied on foreign goods was not adequate to protect our industries or goods.
- The British government did not pay adequate attention to develop the resources and facilities such as coal and iron and railway, roadways and electricity.
- Indian industrialists had to buy machines from abroad and they did not start in India.
- Educated workers like scientists, engineers and technicians were not available in India.
- Hence we depended on foreigners for “technical know how”.
- The above were the difficulties in the development of Indian industries at the time of independence.
In the early days of factories in India : (Text Book Page No. 229)
a) What were the rules regarding work and rest for labourers?
b) What were the rules regarding payment of wages ?
c) For what reasons would there be cuts and reductions in the labourers’ wages?
a) Rules regarding work and rest for labourers :
- Once the work began, there was no question of stopping.
- There was no fixed time break even for meals.
- Taking out 15-20 minutes from their work and would eat their meal.
- The working atmosphere was unhygienic and would pass in the heat, humidity, noise, dust and suffocation of the mill.
- The work would stop at sunset, when it would impossible to see.
b) Rules regarding payment of wages :
- Wages were given in proportion to the amount of goods produced.
- The owners laid the condition that “as much as you make, so much will you be paid”.
- The labourers were not able to get any fixed income each month.
- At the end of the month, the owners would not even pay the full payment. They would keep some amount till the end of the next week so that the worker would not leave the work.
c) Reasons for cuts and reductions in the wages :
- There were plenty of fines.
- The owners would fine the labourers
a) if they came late,
b) if the cloth spoilt,
c) if the owner thought the labourer did not work sincerely.
- These fines were deducted from the month’s wages.
Why did labourers go on strikes? (Text Book Page No. 230)
- Labourers struggled against their oppressive working conditions.
- They went on strike for fixed incomes and other facilities such as –
a) regulation of working hours
b) improvement of their working conditions
c) weekly break and leave
d) regarding employment of children
Why were strikes used instead of any other action? (Text Book Page No. 230)
- During strikes all workers would participate.
- Due to that the work would stop and the production would come down.
- One day strike would lead to lakhs of rupees loss to all industrialists.
- Hence strikes were used instead of any other work.
Why did the educated people of India not pay much attention to the interests of factory labourers in the beginning? (Text Book Page No. 231)
- In the beginning most of the educated people of India paid no need to the problems of the labourers.
They believed that if laws were made in the interests of the labourers, industries would not be able to develop in India.
How would the labour laws have affected the industrialists? (Text Book Page No. 231)
- The industrialists were forced to give a break of half an hour after every six hours of work.
- The working hours of men, women and children were regularised.
- The mill production came down.
- The expenses of the owners increased.
- They were forced to improve the working conditions of the workers.
The British industrialists were against the development of factories in India, yet they took the side of Indian labourers. Why? (Text Book Page No. 231)
- If fixed incomes and facilities were provided, the mill production would come down and the expenses of the owners would go up.
- Then the goods produced in the factories would be more expensive.
- Then the goods from Britain would be sold easily.
- The development of Indian industries would come to a standstill.
Thus the British industrialists were just pretending to show concern for the welfare of the Indian labourers.
Below what age could children not be employed as labourers in British times? (Text Book Page No. 231)
- According to the Factory Act of 1881, children below the age of 7 were not allowed to work in the factories.
- According to the Factory Act of 1891, children below the age of 9 were not allowed to work in the factories.
According to the labour laws what was the maximum number of hours that children, women and men could be expected to work? (Text Book Page No. 231)
- According to the Factory Act of 1881, the children’s working hours were reduced to 9 hours a day.
- According to the Factory Act of 1891, the women labourers cannot be made to work more than 11 hours a day.
- The men labourers cannot be made to work for more than 12 hours every day as per the Factory Act of 1911.
Which were the two main labourers’ unions to be formed in India during British times? (Text Book Page No. 231)
- Girni Kamgar Union was formed with the help of labourers of Mumbai.
- The Mazdoor Mahazan was formed in Ahmedabad under the influence of Gandhiji.
In which year were you born? Mark it on this time line. Also mark the births of your parents and some grandparents or other old relatives you can find out about. (Text Book Page No. 231)
I was born on ……………. . My father was born on ……………. . My mother was born on ……………. . My grand father was born on My grand mother was born on ……………. .
Find out whether any of the people whose births you marked were affected by the labour laws. (Text Book Page No. 231)
My grandfather was affected by labour law. He worked in a sugar factory. So he obtained many benefits by labour law. Working hours duration, medical, housing etc., facilities were obtained.
Underline four sentences that represent the situation of adivasis and their use of forests before British rule. (Text Book Page No. 220)
- Before British rule adivasis and villagers living in and near forests got many things they needed for their daily lives from the forests.
- They were the owners of the forests.
- They used the forests for hunting, gathering tubers, fruits,flowers and herbs and for grazing their cattle.
- They cut wood to build their homes and to make implements. They took things for their personal use.
Have you seen old wooden sleepers used in railway tracks ? What are they being replaced with today? Discuss why this replacement is taking place. (Text Book Page No. 221)
Yes, I have seen wooden sleepers in railway tracks when I was very young. They are replaced by concrete sleepers today. Interest in concrete rail road ties increased after World War – II following advances in the design, quality and production of pre-stressed concrete. Concrete ties were cheaper and easier to obtain than timber and better able to carry higher axle weights and sustain higher speeds. Concrete sleepers have a longer service life and require less maintenance than timber due to their greater weight which helps them remain in the correct position longer.
Problems with wood ties include rot, splitting, insect infestation, plate-cutting, etc. In addition to these, the government wanted to reduce the burden on the forests.
So the concrete sleepers are introduced and replaced the wooden sleepers.
What do the present laws set as minimum age, below which children cannot be employed as labourers? (Text Book Page No. 231)
According to the recent factory acts no child below 14 years of age can be employed as labour in factories or coalmines or any other jobs.
Why is a union or labourers’ organization important for labourers? Discuss. (Text Book Page No. 233)
- Any union or organizations fight for the common cause of all workers.
- They fight for the right of the workers.
- They protect the workers from the harassment of owners.
- They also fight for the hike in salaries and compensation for accident deaths, etc.