AP State Syllabus 9th Class Social Studies Solutions 13th Democratic and Nationalist Revolutions 17th and 18th Centuries
9th Class Social Studies 13th Lesson Democratic and Nationalist Revolutions 17th and 18th Centuries Textbook Questions and Answers
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Identify the name of the country in the context of following statement: (UK, USA and France)
1) revolution where parliament system was established
2) country where king continues to play some role even after revolution
3) country that had to war against another in order to establish its democracy
4) The bill of rights was adopted
5) Overthrow of the monarchy was led by the peasants
6) Declaration of Rights of Man and Citizen was adopted
What were the main ideas of social thinkers, which were significant to the establishment of new forms of governments? How did they gain popularity?
- Philosophers such as John Locke and Rousseau envisaged a society based on freedom and equal laws and opportunities for all.
- Locke in his “Two Treatises of Government” advocated theory of Natural rights and opposed the doctrine of the divine and absolute right of the monarch.
- Rousseau carried the idea forward and laid foundation for democracy in his book “The Social Contract”.
- Montesquieu, in his book “The Spirit of Laws” proposed a division of power between the legislature, the executive and the judiciary.
- Voltair advocated restricted powers.
- Thomas Jefferson advocated to fight for the political rights of the people.
- These ideas were discussed in salons and coffee-houses.
- Spread among the people through books.
- These ideas were read aloud in groups to benefit those who could not read and write.
Describe the circumstances leading to the outbreak of revolutionary protest in France.
The French Revolution is an important political revolution in the world. It has laid foundation for democracy and human rights. The following are the circumstances that led to the outbreak of the French Revolution.
1. Social causes:
- The French society was divided into three estates.
- The members of the first two estates, that is, the clergy and the aristocracy, enjoyed certain privileges and were exempted from paying taxes.
- The burden of taxes was borne by the third estate alone. This problem was compounded by failure of crops.
2. Political causes :
- In 1774, Louis XVI ascended the throne of France.
- He was quite inefficient and was influenced by his wife.
- The influence of nobles and priests also had bad effect on the administration.
3. Growth of Middle class :
- The eighteenth century witnessed the emergence of new social groups, collectively termed the middle class.
- This group of the third estate became powerful due to their access to education and new ideas.
- They believed that no group in the society should be privileged by birth.
4. Intellectual causes :
The third estate was influenced by the philosophical thoughts of Locke, Rousseau, etc.
5. Summoning of Estate General :
- Long years of war had drained the financial resources of France.
- To increase the taxes to meet the expenses, in 1789, summoned the Estates General.
- Summoning of Estate General was the immediate causes of the French Revolution.
Which groups of French society benefited from the revolution? Which groups were forced to relinquish power? Which sections of society would have been disappointed with the outcome of the revolution?
- The third estate, i.e. landless labour, small peasants, middle class were benefited as their rights were recognized.
- The privileges enjoyed by the members of the first two estates were abolished.
- Hence the first two estates, i.e. the clergy and the aristocracy were disappointed with the outcome of the revolution.
After completing the chapter on Fundamental Rights, draw up a list of the democratic rights that we enjoy today whose origins could be traced back to the French Revolution.
The origins of the following democratic rights we enjoy today were traced to the French Revolution.
- Right to participate in the formation of Legislature and Executive
- Rule of law
- Freedom of expression
- Right to property.
Would you agree with the view that the message of Universal Rights was beset with contradictions? Explain.
- Yes. The message of Universal Rights was beset with contradictions.
- Contradiction was evident as regards women. Women did not enjoy the same political rights nor were their wages equal to men.
- The French revolution has been the symbol of liberty, equality and fraternity but later the French became the conquerers instead of liberators.
- And it was the direct contradiction of the terms.
- Slave trade, the most inhuman practice was yet another blatant contradiction.
What made the American colonists to raise the slogan ‘No Taxation without Representation’?
How did you understand the slogan ‘No Taxation without Representation?
- The English Parliament assumed powers to make laws for the American states but the people of those states did not vote for the Parliament.
- American colonies were taxed heavily by the British Government.
- The Parliament often passed laws that favoured English traders at the cost of the people of the colonies.
- The American colonies therefore raised the slogan “No Taxation without Representation”.
What do understand by middle class ? How did it emerge in Europe?
‘The eighteenth century witnessed the emergence of new social groups collectively termed the middle class’ – Explain about the emergence of middle class in Europe.
- Within the Third Estate, a group of people had access to education and new ideas and became prosperous.
- They earned their wealth through expanding means of overseas trade and from the manufacture of goods such as woollen and silk textiles.
- This new social group was collectively termed as middle class.
Locate England, France, Prussia, Spain and Austria on the map of Europe.
How do you understand women’s role in French Revolution
Women’s role in French Revolution : From the very beginning women were active participants in the events which brought about so many important changes in French society. They hoped that their involvement would pressurise the revolutionary govern¬ment to introduce measures to improve their lives. Most women of the Third Estate had to work for a living. They worked as seamstresses or laundresses, sold flowers, fruits and vegetables at the market, or were employed as domestic servants in the houses of prosperous people. Most women did not have access to education or job training.
In order to discuss and voice their interests women started their own political clubs and newspapers. About sixty women’s clubs came up in different French cities. The Society of Revolutionary and Republican Women was the most famous of them. One of their main demands was that women enjoy the same political rights as men. They demanded the right to vote, to be elected to the Assembly and to hold political office.
During the Reign of Terror, the new government issued laws ordering closure of women’s clubs and banning their political activities. Many prominent women were arrested and a number of them executed. It was finally in 1946 that women in France won the right to vote.
Read the paragraph under the title “The Reign of Terror” of page 169 and comment on it.
|The Reign of Terror
The period from 1793 to 1794 is referred to as the Reign of Terror. Robespierre followed a policy of severe control and punishment. All those whom he saw as being ‘enemies’ of the republic – ex-nobles and clergy, members of other political parties, even members of his own party who did not agree with his methods – were arrested, imprisoned and then
tried by a revolutionary tribunal. If the court found them ‘guilty’ they were guillotined. Robespierre’s government issued laws placing a maximum ceiling on wages and prices. Meat and bread were rationed. Peasants were forced to transport their grain to the cities and sell it at prices fixed by the government. The use of more expensive white flour was forbidden. All citizens were required to eat the pain d’egalite (equality bread), a loaf made of whole wheat. Churches were shut down and their buildings converted into barracks or offices. Robespierre pursued his policies so relentlessly that even his supporters began to demand moderation. Finally, he was convicted by a court in July 1794, arrested and on the next day sent to the guillotine.
The Reign of Terror:
In the autumn of 1793, Robespierre and the Jacobins focused on addressing economic and political threats within France. What began as a proactive approach to reclaiming the nation quickly turned bloody as the government instituted its infamous campaign against internal opposition known as the reign of terror.
Beginning in September, Robespierre, under the auspicious of the committee of public safety, began pointing an accusing finger at any one whose beliefs seemed to be counter revolutionary – citizens who had committed no crime but merely had social or political agendas that varied too much from Robespierre. The committee targeted even those who shared many Jacobin views but were perceived as just slightly too radical or conservative. A rash of executions ensured in Paris and soon spread to smaller towns and rural areas.
During the nine-month period that followed, anywhere from 15,000 to 50,000 French citizens were beheaded at the guillotine. Even longtime associates of Robespierre such as Georges Danton, who had helped orchestrate the Jacobin rise to power, fell victim to the paranoia. When Danton wavered in his conviction, questioned Robespierre increasingly. The lives were on the edge of a blade.
Learn something more about the different personalities who played an important role in American and French revolution. Which of them impresses you the most and why? Write a paragraph on him/ her.
- Jacques – Pierre Brissot
- Charles de Calonne
- Lazare carnot
- Marquis de Lafayatte
- Jacques Necker
- Maximillian Robespierre
- Emmanuel – Joseph Sieyes
- Thomas Jafferson
These are all participated and played an important role in French and America revolu-tions. But I like more Marquis de Lafayatte. Why because he participated in American and French Revolutions both.
Marquis de Lafayette :
Lafayate was one of the generals of Louis XVI. Born in a noble family of France, he displayed great qualities of courage and adventure on various occassions. He was also known for his political acumen. He was sent to America during American war of Independence. He helped George Washington in defeating England. While he was in America, he was deeply influenced by the drafting of a constitution and the grant of declaration of rights. On his return from America, he was elected to the estate general and participated in the French Revolution.
Jacques – Pierre Brissot:
A member of the Legislative Assembly and National Conven¬tion who held a moderate stance and believed in the idea of a constitutional monarchy.
Charles de calonne :
The controller general of finance appointed by king Louis XVI after Jacques Necker was forced out of office in 1781.
Lazare carnot :
A French soldier appointed by the committee of public society to help reorganise the failing war effort against Austria and Prussia.
He was appointed as a genera! of finance in the late 1770s.
Maximilien Robespierre :
A brilliant political factician and leader of the radical Jacobins in the National Assembly.
Emmanuel-Joseph Sieyes :
A liberal member of the clergy, supporter of the third estate and author of the fiery 1789 pamphlet “What is the Third Estate”?
9th Class Social Studies 13th Lesson Democratic and Nationalist Revolutions 17th and 18th Centuries InText Questions and Answers
What was the effect of the Civil war on the king and the people of the England? (Text Book Page No. 161)
- A civil war lasted in England for five years.
- Ultimately, Charles, I was defeated and executed in 1649.
- After Glorious Revolution in 1688, the powers of the king were restricted. Thus the Parliament’s supremacy was established.
- After a consistent struggle, the right to vote was gradually extended to all adults by 1928.
(Look at the chart on P.No. 166) Which groups of French society would have gained from the Constitution of 1791? Which groups would have had reason to be dissatisfied? (Text Book Page No. 168)
- The Third Estate and the newly developed middle class were benefited from the revolution.
- They got equal rights with other social groups. They were given right to vote.
- They were given the rights such as right to live, freedom of speech, freedom of opinion and equality before law.
- Common tax is levied. It must be assessed equally on all citizens in proportion to their means. Thus the burden of taxes on common people was removed.
- The clergy the nobles and the king were forced to relinquish their powers and privileges.
- The Declaration of Rights of Man and Citizen declared that no group or individual may exercise authority that does not come from the people. With this the clergy and the nobles were deprived of their special rights and privileges.
- The new Constitution limited the powers of the monarch. Thus the king had to relinquish the powers of his autocracy. The powers concentrated in the hands of one person, were now separated and assigned to different institutions – the legislature, executive and Judiciary.
- According to the Declaration of Rights the common tax is levied. It must be assessed equally on all citizens in proportion to their means. Thus the clergy and the nobles lost their privilege and were forced to pay the taxes.
Fill in the blank boxes in the figure below with appropriate terms from among the following: (Text Book Page No. 163)
1) Food riots
2) Social unrest
3) Increase number of death
4) Rising food prices
5) Weaker bodies.
Write an imaginary dialogue between persons from a king’s party and parliamentary party in our context. (Text Book Page No. 161)
Parliamentary Party :
The parliament had now a better army in so much that if the Earl of Essex had immediately followed the king of Oxford, not yet well fortified, he might in all likelihood have taken it. For he could not want either men or ammunition. Whereof the city of London, which was wholly at the parliments devotion, had store enough.
Kings’ Party :
I cannot judge that. But this is manifest, considering the estate the king was in at his first marching from York, when he had neither money nor men nor arms enough to put them in hope of victory, that this year, take it altogether, was very prosperous.
Imagine the impact of the events of France on neighbouring countries such as Prussia, Austria-Hungary or Spain, all of which were absolute monarchies. How would the kings, traders, peasants, nobles or members of the clergy have reacted to the news of what was happening in France? (Text Book Page No. 168)
- It is said that whenever France sneezes Europe catches cold.
- After the great French Revolution of 1789, France was acknowledged the leader of the progressive opinion in Europe.
- The 1830 revolution raised national spirit in the countries like Belgium, Germany, Italy, Spain, Portugal, and Poland. They led the movements for achieving National Independence.
- The rising tide of revolution in different countries became the cause of fear among the autocrat rulers. They joined to check the spread of the revolution.
- The main gift of French Revolution was the ideas of Liberty, Equality, and Fraternity.
- It ended the dominance of the theory of the divine right of kingship.
- It give death blow to social status by birth. The clergy and nobles lost their supremacy, dominance over polity and other sections of society.
- The clergy and the noble were devoid of their privileges in society.
- The Third Estate and the middle class were relieved from serfdom and the burden of over taxation.