AP State Syllabus 9th Class Social Studies Solutions 12th Changing Cultural Traditions in Europe 1300-1800
9th Class Social Studies 12th Lesson Changing Cultural Traditions in Europe 1300-1800 Textbook Questions and Answers
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Discussion on Renaissance in this chapter was mostly in the context of __________ (England/Italy/France/Germany).
Write a sentence or phrase about the changes in ideas listed below during Renaissance.
a. Humanists :
from religious interests to individual interests.
b. Books :
from hand made to printed books.
c. Paintings :
from religious to realistic.
d. Human beings :
from religious bonds to rational thoughts.
from limited public life to started aspiring for freedom and equality of status.
How did printing of the Bible influence the ideas about God and Church?
- A major achievement of the reformists was to translate the Bible into the popular languages of the people.
- Printing Bible in large quantities made it available to all people.
- Previously the Bible was only in Latin which ordinary people did not understand.
- Translation of the Bible helped the common people to understand the teachings of the sacred book.
- The ideas of reformation took hold of many people in Germany, Holland, France, and England.
- In all these states people with diverse faith emerged and theystartedinterpretingChristianity.
- Thus the influence and power of the Roman Catholic Church declined.
- Later, the Catholic Church itself did not escape the impact of these ideas, and began to reform itself from within.
Compare the modern Italian towns with that of the medieval towns. Do you notice any changes in their present names?
|Medieval towns||Present names|
|2. Spoleto||San Marino|
I observed many changes in the names
Which elements of Greek and Roman culture were revived in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries?
- A new humanist culture had flourished in Italian towns.
- Individualism developed. That means the ability of human beings to know and decide for themselves increased.
- Several Nation States came to be established. Two of these – Florence and Venice were republic.
- After downfall of Constantinople in 1453 A.D., many Greek scholars fled to Italy. This paved a path for the revival of ancient Greek literature.
- Visual arts like painting and sculpture took the form of “realism”.
- People studied the ruins of old Roman buildings to revive the old Roman style.
- This inspired a new style in architecture, which was actually a revival of imperial Roman style, now called “classical”.
- The ideals of Reformation took hold of many people. Interpretation of Christianity emerged. Thus the monopoly of the Catholic Church was for ever broken.
- Scientific outlook developed.
Why were Italian towns the first to experience the ideas of humanism?
- In 1453, Constantinople was overthrown, and the Turkish or Ottoman Empire took the place of the Eastern Roman Empire.
- Many of the educated men who spoke Greek fled to Italy for safety.
- Some of them brought their Greek books with them.
- This increased interest among Italians in the ancient Greek literature.
- The literature of the ancient Greek had reflected an interest in life.
- Later, students of the ancient Greek literature, which dealt with the nature and interest of man, were called Humanists.
- Thus humanism started in Italy and then spread to other European states.
What were the features of humanist thought?
‘Humanist culture means the ideas of modern man who is not under the control of church’. Write about the features of humanist thoughts.
- A new “humanist” culture had flowered in Italian towns.
- It was characterised by a new belief-that man, as an individual was capable of making his own decisions and developing his skills.
- Another important feature of humanist culture was a weakening of the control of religion over human life.
- Humanists considered the acquisition of power and wealth as desirable and not something to be avoided.
- Humanist scholars began attacking the corruption of priests and questioning the need for a priesthood and its interpretation of Christianity.
- The humanist members of the Church called on Christians to practise religion in the way laid down in the ancient texts of their religion, discarding unnecessary rituals.
The following graph indicates the increase in book production. What can you tell about it?
Write about Book Production based on below Graph.
- The books printed increased rapidly.
- During 15th century only a few books were printed.
- People developed the habit of reading.
- Thus ideas, opinions and information moved more rapidly than ever before.
- They acted as good mass media.
Do you agree with the following statement: “Printed books continue to dominate our lives.” Give reasons for your answer.
“The mastery of the technology of printing was the greatest revolution of the sixteenth century”. Explain how the invention of the Printing machine affected the human lives?
- “Gutenberg” invented printing press.
- The Bible was translated into all languages.
- Books like “Utopia”, Praise of Folly”, “Divine Comedy”, etc. changed the society and paved way for the great Reformation Movement.
- Students did not have to depend solely on lectures – notes.
- Cultural diffusion has taken place due to the availability of books.
- Hence we can say “Printed books continue to dominate our lives”.
Write an account of how the world appeared different to seventeenth century Europeans.
- The ideas of reformation took hold of many people and the monopoly of the Roman Catholic Church was for ever broken.
- The few people who were interested, started investigating the world in which they lived.
- Scientific attitudes developed.
- Theirs was a radically new view of human beings as free and rational agents.
- Faith in religious books and priests decreased.
- Faith in the ability of human beings to know and decide for themselves increased.
- They showed interest in reading good literature.
- Europeans were strongly attracted to material wealth, power and glory.
- Self interests developed.
- Many of the scientific inventions took place and people started exploring the world and discovered sea routes to different continents.
Mention the outstanding features of the renaissance architecture. Explain why.
- During Renaissance, a new style in architecture, which was actually a rival of the imperial Roman style, emerged.
- They used tall pillars, arches, and domes in buildings and decorated buildings with paintings, sculptures and reliefs.
- Another remarkable change was that from this time, artists were known individually, by name, not as members of a group or a guild as earlier.
Observe the map 2 given in the page 156 and locate the geographical explorations on the world outline map.
Read the para 4 of Page No. 151 and comment on it.
|The new ideal of individuality and citizenship excluded women. Men from aristocratic families dominated public life and were the decision-makers in their families. They educated their sons to take their place in family businesses or in public life, at times sending their younger sons to join the Church. Although their dowries were invested in the family businesses, women generally had no say in how their husbands should run their business. Often, marriages were intended to strengthen business alliances. If an adequate dowry could not be arranged, daughters were sometimes sent to convents to live the life of a nun. Obviously, the public role of women was limited and they were looked upon as keepers of the households.|
Women in the middle ages occupied a number of different social roles. Women in the middle ages, a European history from around the 5th century to the 15th century, held the position of wife, mother, peasant, artisan, and nun, as well as some important leadership roles, such as abbess or queen regnant. The very concept of “woman” changed in a number of ways during the middle ages and several forces influenced their role during the period.
Collect pictures of great Renaissance artists and prepare an album.
Prepare a play on the debate between Galileo and a priest who did not believe that the earth went around the sun.
Priest : “Hi ! What is this instrument ?”
Galileo : “Ho I This is a telescope.”
Priest : “What is the use of this instrument ?”
Galileo : “This is useful in observing the celestial bodies, their motion and their, shapes, etc.”
Priest : “There is nothing to know about them. The earth we live is flat and it is in the centre of the universe. We, the priests, are direct descendants of god and everyone should listen to our words. Bible is the only holy book.”
Galileo : “I am very sorry to say that all your words are wrong. Now, it is time to know the truth. The earth is round. It is a planet in the solar system and it revolves round the sun. Human beings on the earth are all equal.”
Priest : “Don’t say like that. You are too wrong. You should apologise for these words.
Otherwise you will be punished by the church.”
Galileo : “I don’t care, I am ready to face my trouble. The earth is moving – moving – moving.”
Study the various ways in which we use products of the printing press today and pre¬pare a detailed report.
We use printing press in all spheres of our life.
- Greeting cards
- Bill books
- Novels, others, etc.
9th Class Social Studies 12th Lesson Changing Cultural Traditions in Europe 1300-1800 InText Questions and Answers
You have read about the zamindari system and vetti in Hyderabad state in class VIII. Compare it with ‘serfdom’ in Europe. (Text Book Page No. 145)
- Both the systems exploited the labourer.
- Both the classes were the lowest in all social classes.
- The condition of serfs was more better than that of vetti.
Who were the humanists and what did they teach? (Text Book Page No. 147)
- Students of the ancient Greek literature, which dealt with the nature and interests of man, were called Humanists.
- Humanism taught a new belief – that man, as an individual was capable of making his own decisions and developing his skills.
- Humanism taught to pursue pleasure, seek wealth and comfort and also act in self interest.
- Humanists began attacking the corruption among clergy.
- Humanists questioned the need for a priesthood and its interpretation of Christianity.
In what way do you think women of those times have benefited from studying Greek and Roman books? (Text Book Page No. 152)
- The women were able to question the scholars that “Were women incapable of achiev¬ing the qualities of humanist scholars ?”
- They were able to criticise political systems openly.
- They were inivited to give orations at the universities.
Thus the women have benefited from studying Greek and Roman books.
What were the issues on which the Protestants criticised Catholic Church? (Text Book Page No. 154)
The Church was criticised on the following grounds :
- It dominated the religious and cultural life of people in medieval times.
- The Catholic priests of Roman Catholic Church began to lead a luxurious life and they were criticised for their rich and luxurious life.
- Erasmus criticised some of the beliefs of the Church, which he said, were based on superstitions.
- Church had become an institution marked by greed, extorting money at will from ordinary people.
- Sale of indulge certificates to free the buyer from the burden of sin, was also criticised.
Do you see any similarity between the Bhakti movement in India and the Protestant movement ? Do you also see any differences between the two of them? (Text Book Page No. 154)
|Bhakti Movement||Protestant Movement|
|1. Bhakti movement was a religious movement of Medieval India.||1. The Protestant movement was a religious movement of Medieval Europe.|
|2. The ritualistic styles of Bhakti were given up.||2. Emphasis was given to discard unneces sary rituals.|
|3. Sanskrit books were translated into local languages.||3. The Bible was also translated into popular languages of the people.|
|4. Domination of Brahmins was questioned and emphasis was given to equality.||4. Domination of priests and Nobles was criticised.|
|5. Some of the dominating preaches of Bhakti were Ramanand, Chaitanya, Guru Nanak, etc.||5. Martin Luther, Ulrich Zwingli and Jean Calvin propagated Protestant movement.|
|6. “Ramacharitha Manas”, Akbar Nama, etc. books were published.||6. “Praise of Folly”, “Utopia”, Divine Comedy, etc. were some books that influenced people.|
Who were the Renaissance scientists, and how did each of them contribute to science? (Text Book Page No. 155)
Who were the chief Renaissance scientists, and what work did each of them contribute to science?
1) Andreas Vesalius (1514-64) :
He was a Belgian and a professor of medicine at the university of Padua. He was the first to dissect human body. This was the beginning of the modern physiology.
2) William Harvey (1628):
Harvey discovered the blood circulation in human body after making careful experiments.
3) Isaac Newton :
Sir Newton propounded the theory of gravitational force. He proved that all heavenly bodies moved according to the law of gravitation. In 1687, Newton’s Principia Mathematica was published.
4) Roger Bacon :
He was a serious searcher for truth. He performed some experiments with metals and chemicals and probably had a crude microscope.
5) Nicolaus Copernicus (1473 -1543):
He built an observatory from which he patiently studied the heavens. Copernicus claimed that the earth is one of a number of planets that revolve around the sun.
6) Galileo (1564 – 1642) :
Galileo invented a telescope. This aided in the study of astronomy. He supported Copernicus and proved that the sun is the centre of the universe. Galileo also discovered certain laws of pendulum. He also proved that the heavy and light objects fall at the same speed.
How do you think trade helps in the development of towns? (Text Book Page No. 145)
- The people involved in trade will settle in towns because they need transport facilities.
- The working class also settles in the towns to market their products.
- The foreign traders also reach the towns mostly port towns to do their business.
So I think the trade helps in the development of towns.
In the view of Burckhardt, which of these would be associated with modern view and which would be medieval view? (Text Book Page No. 145)
i) Faith in the ability of human beings to know and decide for themselves
ii) Faith in the Religious books and priests
iii) Faith in divine revelation
iv) Faith in human reason
i) Modern view
ii) Medieval view
iii) Medieval view
iv) Modern view
There was no printing press in India during the same period. Let us suppose Krishna Devaraya wrote a book. How do you think it would have reached scholars in different parts of India? (Text Book Page No. 150)
The hand written books would have reached scholars in different parts of India.
What do you think would have been the reaction of kings and priests to the printing press? Would they have welcomed it or would they have been worried by it? (Text Book Page No. 150)
They have been worried by it.
Reason : The common man was under the control of church in all the matters. The inven¬tion of printing press enabled the common man to know the the Bible. This was a great damage to the kings and priests. So they have been worried by it.
Locate Republics and three court cities on the outline map of Italy. (Text Book Page No. 146)
Some Republics : Venice, Florence, Sicily
Court Cities : Rome, Padua, Mantua, Venice, Bologna and Genoa
Read the following map and prepare a list of explorations of sea routes. (Text Book Page No. 157)
- 1492-1504 – Christopher Columbus reaches America looking for a sea route to the Indies; discovering various lands and islands and establishing a colony on Hispaniola.
- 1498 – Vasco da Gama sails around Africa from Portugal reaching India and establishing trade routes.
- 1499-1504 – Amerigo Vespucci explores New World.
- 1519-1522 – Ferdinand Magellan’s ships circumnavigate the world.
- 1488 – Sails around the southernmost tip of Africa, reaching Indian Ocean from the Atlantic; It was only on the return voyage that he discovered the Cape of Good Hope.
Do you think there is a greater possibility of knowing new ideas and trying out new things in towns rather than villages ? Discuss. (Text Book Page No. 145)
1) Many people, who are efficient, from all spheres reach towns to prove themselves. There are many chances to interact with many people.
So I think there is a greater possibility of knowing more and trying out new things in towns rather than villages.
Describe the different scientific elements in the work of sixteenth century Italian artists. (Text Book Page No. 149)
- Artists wanted “perfectly proportioned men and women” in their sculptures.
- They took the help of scientists to reach perfection.
- Painters knowledge of geometry and changing quality of light helped them to acquire a three dimensional quality.
- Many artists like Leonardo da Vinci studied human anatomy so as to make their paintings and sculpture realistic, e.g : The statue The Pieta by Michelangelo.
- Thus, anatomy, geometry, physics as well as a strong sense of beauty, gave a new quality to Italian art.
The Renaissance was considered a New Age, because people considered it proper to pursue pleasure, seek wealth and comfort and also act in seif-interest. This was in contrast to teachings of religions that one should not act in self-interest and forsake comfort and wealth. Do you agree with this view point of the Renaissance humanists? (Text Book Page No. 151)
I agree with this view point of the Renaissance humanists.
Self-interest, self-growth etc., lead human beings to moral lives. The humanists were against the exploitation. So I agree with them.