AP State Syllabus 8th Class Social Studies Solutions 6th Lesson Minerals and Mining
8th Class Social Studies 6th Lesson Minerals and Mining Textbook Questions and Answers
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Create a flow chart showing the visit to the underground mining.
Visit to a mine
Meeting safety officer
Taking safety kit
Report at muster point for online registration
Getting into Hollage, Bell signal
Ready for blasting, blasting
Observing the blasted area
Transport through conveyor belts
Trucks & trains
Sent for sale
Create a table to classify major health challenges; precautions; and care taken towards protecting mine workers as follows: 1. While working in the mines 2. While being employed.
The people, who work in mines, mainly have a chance of getting lung problems, knee pains and eyesight. There is a chance of occurring accidents also.
While being employed they may get diseases according to the nature of their work, e.g.:
- Throat problems to teachers.
- eyesight and joint pains to drivers.
- backbone pains to coolies.
There is a chance of mental problems to workers who work with tension and stress. Doing pranayama, meditation, and walking etc., are some steps to be followed by them.
The workers in mines should wear mask (nasal), shoes, gloves. The machines in the mines should be checked daily, properly and thoroughly.
Doctors and oxygen cylinders should be in reach.
Janaki is currently a farm labourer. She wants to become a miner. Can you explain what changes will occur in her nature of work; employment scenario; health risks etc.
Nature of work: “Janaki, now you are working in green fields, and in pleasant situation. Here you are working during day time. But in mines it is too dangerous and in shift system. Night shift may be a hurdle to you. When compared to farm work, mining work is difficult.”
Employment scenario : “Janaki, to get a job in mines is difficult. You will be selected as a daily labour. You have to go to a long distance, where the mine is located. Even though both are in the agriculture sector, the nature of works is totally different. Sometimes you have to prepare for a blast also.”
Health problems: “Janaki, working in mines is a health hazard. You should work in dust. You should wear helmet, gloves and socks/shoes. Your life might be at risk, if any accident occurs.” “Please think yourself in all the angles and take a decision. Have a nice time. All the Best”.
Narrate the difference in requirement of labour in mine while using machines and human labour.
If the mines are not provided with machines, human labour is needed more. If they are provided with machines, vice-versa, e.g.: In recent past the coal in mines was taken to lifts in trolleys. At present it is through conveyor belt. Because of the usage of machines, the percentage of recruitments in mines is decreased.
How has been the contribution of mining to economy identified in this chapter?
India is underdeveloped country immediately after independence. These mines yield income to the government and also get royalty, when the mines were given to others. So I think this is the contribution of mining to economy.
(Note: The bove given answer is an example. Students can write the minerals found in their own districts by seeing the map.)
See the map of Andhra Pradesh showing minerals in this chapter and identify the minerals found in your district.
Our district is Kurnool Lime stone is available in our district.
Read the paragraph under the heading. To whom do the minerals belong’ and answer the following:
Minerals usually occur deep in the earth. They in fact do not belong to any particular owner but belong to all people of the country and have to be used in everyone’s interest. That is why all mineral wealth of a state is considered the property of the government. The government uses the minerals keeping in mind the interests of all people of the country.
The minerals do not belong to any particular person but they belong to all people. How do you justify?
Minerals usually occur deep in the earth. The things which we get from the earth is property of government. They, in fact, do not belong to any particular owner but belong to all people of the country and have to be used in everyone’s interest. So government uses the minerals by keeping this in view.
Look at the image below. There are two different statements made by two different people. What aspect of mining are they talking about?
We cannot live because of minerals: This person lost his land, house etc., for these mines. So he said this.
We cannot live without minerals: This person took the land for mine on lease. So he said these words.
How are minerals helping the country in development?
- There are different types of resources, who supports to a country’s development.
- Human resources take a vital role by the usage of natural resources.
- Mineral resources is the most precious transfer for the economy.
- Extraction of minerals is a good source of employment opportunities.
- Many basic minerals are necessary to run industries.
- Minerals are useful for the development of agricultural sector.
- Minerals are also help to develop transport facilities.
Prepare a table showing different minerals and their uses.
|1) Aluminium||Transportation, packaging, building, electrical and machinery.|
|2) Copper||Construction, electrical & electronic products, transportation equipment, roofing, chemical & pharmaceutical machinery and alloys etc.|
|3) Gold||Jewellery adarts, dentistry and medicine, in medallions and coins etc.|
|4) Iron ore||Manufacture of steels of various types, magnets, high frequency cores etc.|
|5) Silver||Coins, medals, electrical & electronic devices, industrial application etc.|
8th Class Social Studies 6th Lesson Minerals and Mining InText Questions and Answers
Can you think of some mineral which renews itself and we can help to increase it? (Textbook Page No. 63)
Underground water renews itself. We can help to increase it in the following ways.
- Rainwater harvesting pits should be dug.
- Trees also increase underground water, so trees should be grown.
- The excess water in fields should be collected in a pond and makd them to absorb in the ground.
- Unused drainage canals can be modified to increase recharge.
Can you think of some source of energy which will not diminish with our use of it which will keep renewing itself even if we don’t do anything? (Textbook Page No. 63)
Classify the following natural objects into renewable and non-renewable resources. Put a tick (✓) against those which are minerals and cross (✕) which are not minerals.
Bamboo, Coal, Sea water, Mud, Ants, Sand, Iron Ore, Diamond, Trees, Petroleum, Grass, Air, Marble rock, Fishes, Well water, Sunshine.
|Renewable resource||Non-renewable resource||Minerals|
|Renewable resource||Non-renewable resource||Minerals|
Can you classify the following minerals into metallic, non-metallic and energy source? (Textbook Page No. 64)
|Metallic||Non- metallic||Energy Source|
Iron ore, bauxite (aluminum ore), coal, copper ore, limestone, gypsum, mica, groundwater petroleum, rock salt, sand, gem stones.
|Metallic||Non- metallic||Energy Source|
How does the government use the minerals?
- In 1970s the government took over all the mines.
- Then it owned and operated most of the mines and sold the minerals to various factories or traders or exported them.
- The income thus received by the government is being spent on developmental activities of the people.
a) Discuss the pros and cons of allowing private companies to mine our minerals.
b) How do you think they can be regulated?
c) How do you think can the environmental concerns can be taken care of? (Textbook Page No. 68)
a) Pros: A New National Mineral Policy was announced in 1993, and the government allowed private companies to lease mines and operate them. The companies were to pay a royalty to the government for the minerals they extracted and sold. In this way the govern¬ment could retain regulatory control over the mining, get income from them and at the same time encourage private companies to invest money and bring in new technologies.
Cons: On the other hand, there has also been uncontrolled mining by the private companies far in excess of the permits given to them and disregard for environmental and safety measures. Excess mining means that more quantity is mined than is sustainable on a long term. It also means that the minerals are taken away by companies without paying royalty to the government – thus the people to whom the minerals really belong to do not get anything. It can also be environmentally very harmful.
b) Mines should be under the control of the government. If they are given to others, there should be the supervision of higher officials and local people.
c) Preference should be given to the mining people, who are interested in underground mining. The pit and the mound of rubble which is created should be properly disposed of.
Necessary steps should be taken to control the sand pits.
If all people of the country are the real owners of the mineral resources, how can we ensure that they are used for the benefit of all? (Textbook Page No. 68)
The income received through this should be spent on developmental activities of transport facilities, health facilities, and other subsidies to the people.
Do you think the generations to come, that is our children and our grand children too should be able to use these resources? How can we ensure that they are available to them too and not exhausted? (Textbook Page No. 68)
I think so. Our future generations too should be able to use these resources.
We should invent and use substitutes. The usage of minerals should be minimised.
Then we can ensure the future generations.
Can you imagine a world in which we cannot run motors or trains? (Textbook Page No. 63)
If the trains and cars are not invented, that would be different. But when we cannot run motors or trains, it seems critical. The distance on the globe would increase.
Look at the following pictures and guess which of them is open cast mine, underground mine and drill mining for oil. (Textbook Page No. 66)
(i) Drill mining for oil
(ii) Open cast mine
(iii) Underground mining
a) Can you name these instruments? (Textbook Page No. 69)
Yes. Helmet, Lanthern, Safety belts etc. are the instruments in safety kit used in coal mines.
b) What is the use of the stick?
The stick is used to check the blasted place in the mine by tapping.
c) Why is there a light on the helmet?
It is too dark in the mine. To see the forth covering area there is a light on the helmet,
d) Did you identify the lamp in the picture? What purpose does it serve?
Yes. Its a Lantern. T1 lantern is used in mines. Lantern gives indications of dangers like leakage of poisonous gases etc.
Find out about the uses of Barytes from the box given in page 64. Why do you think demand for Barytes is increasing? (Textbook Page No. 73)
Barium obtained from Barytes is used for industrial and medical purposes. Barytes is used in drilling deep holes for petroleum and natural gas.
Nowadays, extracting these petroleum and natural gas is increased. The industrial sector is also developed. So the use of Barytes is also increased.
a) Describe what is happening in the following figure.
b) How many people do you think would be employed for this operation?
c) Can you see the collection of underground water in the top left corner of the picture? What will happen to this water?
a) The truck is being loaded with Barytes by using crane.
b) 10 to 15 people may be needed for this.
c) This may be absorbed in the ground or may be pumped to another place.
If there is mining activity in your area, find out about the people who work and live there and also about how it affects the environment around it. Also find out how many people benefit from it. (Textbook Page No. 66)
My father, Sri M. Rama Chandra Rao, is working in G.M’s office SCCL in Bhupalpalli, Bhupalpaili mandal near Parakal, Warangal district. Here are 6 underground mines and one open cast. The population of Bhupalpalli is 70,000 to 80,000. Out of these 60% to 70% belong to the families of SCCL. Here the mines were inaugurated by our ex -Chief Minister, late Sri N. T. Rama Rao in 1989. The names of these mines are like ‘Kakatiya Incline I, II, III, V, VI, VII etc. SCCL has a sentiment regarding number IV. So they never use ‘4’. The number of trees is very less here. Summers are too hot. No crops are found while we travel from Parakala to Bhupalpalli. If we take Kakatiya Incline -1 as our example, there are 2000 workers and official staff in this. SCCL takes necessary steps like plantation etc., to protect environment. In this district mines are only in Bhupalpalli.
a) How do you think this dilemma can be resolved?
b) Is it fair to produce coal at a low price when it causes the loss of livelihood, lands and damages the environment? (Textbook Page No. 73)
a) We should invent and use the substitutes for the production of electricity, e.g.: Sea water, sunlight etc.
b) This is not fair. Due to this we feel no difference between the public sector and private sector.
Compare the mining in the coal belt with the mining in Mangampeta. What are the similarities and what are the differences? (Textbook Page No. 75)
- Both are minerals.
- Both are under government supervision.
- Detonators are used for blasting purpose in both the places.
- For quality, the minerals are collected from deep layers.
- Necessary steps are taken for the safety of the workers.
|Mining in coal belt||Mining in Mangampeta|
|1) These are extended in a large area – 4 districts.||1) These are at only one place – Mangampeta.|
|2) These are of 2 types – underground mines and open cast.||2) These are open cast.|
|3) The employees are in thousands.||3) The employees are in hundreds.|
|4) Men only work in these mines.||4) Both men and women work in these mines.|
|5) These were working prior to independence.||5) These were started in 1967.|