AP State Syllabus 8th Class Social Studies Solutions 13th Lesson The Indian Constitution
8th Class Social Studies 13th Lesson The Indian Constitution Textbook Questions and Answers
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Damanpur is ruled by its king based on a set of rules written down by the priest and ministers. He has also divided his kingdom into 16 provinces to which he appoints his officers as governors. Can we say that this is democratic country? Is it a constitutional country? Give reasons for your answer.
I cannot say it as democratic country and a constitutional country.
- The king came to throne on heredity.
- Purohits and ministers were not elected but selected.
- The officials were selected and appointed by the king.
Which of the following statements is correct?
a. Constitution determines the relationship between people and government.
b. Democratic countries generally contain a Constitution.
c. To make a Constitution to a diverse country like India is not an easy task.
d. All are correct.
d (All are correct).
Match the following leaders with their roles in the making of the Constitution:
a. Motilal Nehru [ ] i) President of the Constituent Assembly
b. B. R. Ambedkar [ ] ii) Member of the Constituent Assembly
c. Rajendra Prasad [ ] iii) Chairman of the Drafting Committee
d. Sarojini Naidu [ ] iv) Prepared a Constitution for India in 1928
Read again the extracts from Nehru’s speech and answer the following:
a. What pledge did he want the makers of the Indian Constitution to take?
b. “The ambition of the greatest man of our generation has been to wipe every tear from every eye.” Who was he referring to?
a) The pledge he wanted the makers of the Indian Constitution to take was ‘incessant striving’.
b) He was referring to Mahatma Gandhiji.
Here are some of the guiding values of the Constitution and their meaning. Rewrite them by matching them correctly.
a) Sovereign i) Government will not favour any religion.
b) Republic ii) People have the supreme right to make decisions.
c) Fraternity iii) Head of the state is an elected person.
d) Secular iv) People should live like brothers and sisters.
What values are embedded in the preamble of the Indian Constitution?
Preamble of the Indian Constitution: The values that inspired and guided the freedom struggle formed the foundation for India’s democracy. These values are embedded in the ‘Preamble’ of the Indian Constitution, which is a short statement of its basic principles and objectives. They guide all the provisions of Indian Constitution.
“All are equal before law”- Explain this with examples.
EQUALITY: Our Constitution does not promise equality in all respects (like income or property) but it seeks to ensure that all people will enjoy the same status – that is, everyone will be governed by the same laws. Secondly, it promises equality of ‘opportunity’. This means that all public offices shall be open to all, irrespective of caste or religion. If an office requires special qualification, access to that qualification too will be made equal to all.
Identify correct statements from the following:
a. The Constitution defines powers of the Legislative houses.
b. The Constitution cannot be changed under any circumstances.
c. Ideals that are in the preamble are reflected in the design of institutions.
d. Laws for the entire country are designed centrally.
a and c are correct statements.
On what occasions equal justice is seen? Mention with examples.
No discrimination will be made to any citizen. On account of his/her, birth, beliefs, wealth or status.
- Right to vote
- Right to freedom of religious
- Right to equality etc.
Compare the preambles to the Constitutions of the United States of America, India and South Africa.
a. Make a list of ideals that are common to all these three.
b. Note down at least one major difference among these.
c. Which of the three makes a reference to the past?
d. Which of these does not invoke God?
Preamble of Constitution of United States of America
We the people of the United States in order to form a more perfect union establish justice, insure domestic tranquility, provide for the common defense, promote the general welfare, and secure the blessings of liberty to ourselves and our posterity do or dain and establish this Constitution for the United States of America.
Preamble of Constitution of South Africa
We the people of South Africa, Recognize the injustices of our past; Honour those who suffered for justice and freedom in our land; Respect those who have worked to build and develop our country; and Believe that South Africa belongs to all who live in it, united in our diversity. We therefore, through our freely elected representatives, adopt this Constitution as the Supreme law of the republic so as to- heal the divisions of the past and establish a society based on democratic values, social justice and fundamental human rights; Lay the founda¬tions for a democratic and open society in which government is based on the will of the people and every citizen is equally protected by law; Improve the quality of life of all citizens and free the potential of each person; and Build a united and democratic South Africa able to take its rightful place as a sovereign state in the family of nations.
May God protect our people.
God bless South Africa.
Preambles to the Constitutions:
|Sovereign, socialist, secular, democratic, justice, liberty equality, fraternity.||Social justice, fundamental human rights, democratic and open society, equal protection by law, improvised quality of life.|
a) List of ideals: Sovereign, socialism, secular, democratic.
b) The date is mentioned in the Indian Constitution but not others.
c) South Africa makes a reference to the past.
d) Indian Constitution and American Constitution do not invoke God.
8th Class Social Studies 13th Lesson The Indian Constitution InText Questions and Answers
If you and your classmates were asked to formulate five goals for the country – what would they be? How would you arrive at those five goals? Discuss in the class and work with the help of your teacher. (Textbook Page No. 150)
- Universal Education
- Universal Health
- Economic development
- Peace and Living together
- Non-violence, opportunities to all
I create awareness in the officials and rulers about these goals. I will make the people believe in peace, non-violence and living together.
I will bring the change in the society.
Can you list out some of the inequalities and discriminations prevalent in our society at the time of Independence? (Textbook Page No. 151)
- Economic inequalities
- Social inequalities
- Racial discrimination
- Gender discrimination
Here is a set of statements that is put in pairs, but some of it has wrong information. Can you correct them?
a) A model constitution was drafted + Motilal Nehru
b) Leaders agreed that illiterate people should not vote
c) Provincial legislature + Constitution adopted some colonial laws
d) Partition + large number of people were killed and forced to migrate
e) Restriction on women voting + commitment to social reform in India. (Textbook Page No. 151)
a) Motilal Nehru and eight other Indian National Congress leaders drafted a Constitution for India.
b) The government would be built by general elections based on the principles of ‘universal adult franchise or right of every adult citizen irrespective of gender, caste, religion, education or wealth to vote in elections.
e) Voting right to women + commitment to social reform in India.
What were the sources of inspiration and ideas for framing our Constitution? (Or)
What thoughts inspired the framing of our Constitution? (Textbook Page No. 152)
First of all, the framers were inspired by the struggle waged by the diverse kinds of Indian people and their aspiration for a better world to live in. They knew that it was their sacred duty to help build an India in which all these diverse kinds of people may realise their aspirations. They were also deeply influenced by the thoughts of Mahatma Gandhi and other national leaders.
Secondly, many of our leaders were inspired by the ideals of French Revolution, the prac-tice of parliamentary democracy in Britain and the Bill of Rights in the USA. The socialist revolution in Russia and China had inspired many Indians to think of shaping a system based on social and economic equality. All these factors influenced the making of our Constitution.
Thirdly, the British too had introduced some basic institutions of democratic rule in India. However, only certain categories of people could vote in the elections. British had introduced very weak legislatures. Elections were held in 1937 to Provincial Legislatures and Ministries all over British India. These were not fully democratic governments. But the experience gained by Indians in the working of the legislative institutions proved to be very useful for the country in setting up its own institutions and working in them. That is why the Indian Constitution adopted many institutional details and procedures from colonial laws.
The people of India decided (resolved) to achieve two objectives. What were these? (Textbook Page No. 155)
The following objectives were resolved by the Indian people.
- To establish a republican country.
- To secure to all its citizens, justice, liberty, equality and fraternity.
What did they do in order to achieve these objective?
- To achieve the objectives, we incorporated the objectives in our constitution.
- For republican country we are electing the head of the nation.
- To secure the remaining objectives we added secularism, socialism in our constitution.
- Provide justice and equal opportunities to all people without discrimination.
- To achieve these universalising literacy and education, protection of environment, reducing inequalities etc. are kept infront of the government.
- Maintain brotherhood nature among all people.
- To achieve these, we are following parliamentary system and federal system.
Can you identify one idea that is common to all these three? (Textbook Page No. 155)
‘Equality’ is the common idea to all these three.
What are the differences in their ways of expressing that common idea? (Textbook Page No. 155)
A) Mahatma Gandhi: There shall be no high class and low class of people.
B) B.R. Ambedkar: How long shall we continue to live this life of contradictions?
C) Jawaharlal Nehru: It means the ending of poverty and ignorance and disease and inequality of opportunity.
The three expressed the same idea in different words.
Discuss why the leaders who fought for freedom did not want India to be ruled by kings and queens. (Textbook Page No. 150)
Kings and queens ruled the country mostly dictatorially. They ruled India by dividing it into small kingdoms. They failed in answering foreign invasions.
The freedom fighters were all nationalists. They prayed and dreamed India as a huge nation. They wished democratic rule.
So they did not want India to be ruled by kings and queens.
Find out from your grandparents or old neighbours who were there at the time of independence about how things were at that time and what they felt about the future of the country. (Textbook Page No. 151)
Things at the time of independence :
- Apart from social and cultural diversity, there were huge differences between rich and poor, upper and lower castes, men and women.
- Literacy levels and education were very low.
- There was acute poverty.
- There were sharp differences of opinion among the leaders of the national movement, about how we could make a better society after Independence.
Our grandparents/Old neighbours felt about the future of the country in the following way.
- The dreams of Gandhiji would be true.
- There would be a plenty of food in the country.
- People would be happy with their shelters and clothes.
- There would be no inequalities.
- There would be no discriminations.
- All would be equal before law etc.
Why do you think the kings were allowed to nominate members to the Constituent Assembly? (Textbook Page No. 153)
The kings were familiar with the ideas of their people. They could integrate the ideas of their people. So the kings were allowed to nominate members to the Constituent Assembly.
Why do you think there were so few women members? Do you think it would have been better if there had been more women members? (Textbook Page No. 153)
At that time the educated women and the women politicians were very less in number. Even today we are fighting for 33% of women reservations. So there were so few women members. Yes, I think it would have been better if there had been more women members.
Which of the guiding principles in the Objective Resolution, do you think is the most important? Give your reasons for it. Do other students have a different opinion about this? (Textbook Page No. 154)
“Welfare of all mankind” – This guiding principle in the Objective Resolution is the most important.
The welfare of all mankind is the welfare of the Earth.
This leads to world peace. Other students have no different opinions.
Why is it necessary for an elected parliament to make laws? Why can’t they be made by learned lawyers and judges? (Textbook Page No. 157)
Our Constitution provides a Parliamentary form of government. The Parliament, consisting of representatives of the people makes laws. These laws are according to the needs and views of the citizens/people. Judiciary comments on this.
Learned lawyers and judges can make laws legally but not for the welfare of the people. They don’t have the support of the people. So they cannot make laws.
Why do you think the Prime Minister and his Cabinet should get their decisions and actions approved by the Parliament and answer the questions raised by the members of Parliament? Will it be better if they were answerable only to the President? (Textbook Page No. 157)
The Prime Minister and the Cabinet are answerable to the Parliament. The members of Parliament are the representatives elected by the civilians directly. So they are answerable to them.
It will not be better if they are answerable only to the President as it is against the democracy.
So they should get their decisions approved by the Parliament.
Some countries have a different structure in which there is only a central government that makes laws for the entire country and governs all the provinces or states. Do you think such a system is suited for India? Discuss in the class. (Textbook Page No. 158)
India is a land of many diversities. The laws of only central government are not correct to this kind of nation. Different regions have different cultures. All these things should be taken into consideration to make laws. So such system is not suited for India.
Discuss why the courts and judges should be independent of the state and central government authorities. (Textbook Page No. 158)
To safeguard the Constitution, the courts and judges should be independent. Otherwise there is a chance of sidetrack. So they should be independent.
Why should the Election Commission be autonomous? (Textbook Page No. 158)
The Election Commission should be autonomous to conduct free and fair elections.