AP State Syllabus 8th Class Social Studies Solutions 11th Lesson National Movement: The Last Phase 1919-1947
8th Class Social Studies 11th Lesson National Movement: The Last Phase 1919-1947 Textbook Questions and Answers
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Create a table to show the various efforts of Gandhiji in national movement.
|1917 & 1918 Peasants’ struggle||His earliest interventions were in local movements in Champaran and Kheda where he led peasants in their struggles against unfair terms and excessive taxes.|
|1919 Mill workers strike||In Ahmedabad he led a successful textile workers strike in 1919.|
|1919 Rowlatt Act||Gandhiji gave a call for Satyagraha against the Rowlatt Act.|
|1920 Punjab wrongs||Gandhiji supported the Muslims call and urged the Congress to campaign against “Punjab wrongs”, the Khilafat wrong.|
|1920-22 Non-Cooperation Movement||Gandhiji demanded Swarajya and abruptly called off NonCooperation movement.|
|1930 Salt Satyagraha, Civil Disobedience||He led a campaign to Dandi village from Sabarmathi Ashram in Ahmedabad and refused the British laws.|
|1942 Quit India movement||Quit India resolution was passed on 8-8-1942 at Bombay. “British Rule in India must end immediately”; Gandhiji addressed memorable words to the Indian People.|
|194, Aug 15||He rendered his services till we attained our independence.|
The national movement fought all attempts of the British government to deny democratic freedom and rights of the people. Give examples of the rights which the government tried to curtail and the movement launched against it.
- In 1919 the British introduced and passed the Rowiatt Act. The act curbed the fundamental rights of citizens and strengthened police powers.
The National leaders declared 6-4-1919 “the day of humiliation and prayer” and hartal, Satyagraha sabhas were set up to launch the movement.
- In 1920 the British imposed a harsh treaty on the Turkish Sultan or Khalifa.
The nationalist leaders and Muslim League opposed this as Punjab wrongs’ and ‘Khilafat wrong’ and demanded swaraj. They announced Non-Cooperation movement.
- The British government decided to convert Chirala-Perala into a municipality. They forced high taxes. The people refused, under the leadership of Duggirala Gopalakrishnayya, to pay the taxes. They migrated to a new settlement called Ramnagar and remained there for eleven months.
- The Britishers imposed tax on ‘Common salt’. The nationalists opposed this and started civil disobedience movement.
Thus the Indian Nationalists opposed all the negative activities of the British government.
To what extent was the Salt Satyagraha successful in its objectives? Give your assessment.
A wave of enthusiasm swept the country during the Salt Satyagraha. Sait laws were broken at many places and even women took part in the Civil Disobedience Movement. In Delhi alone, 1600 women were imprisoned. This movement was not confined to the Salt Satyagraha alone. Foreign-cloth shops and liquor shops were picketed and were burned. Hand spinning was taken up as a movement. British schools, colleges, and services were boycotted. The people joined in large numbers in this movement.
The combined struggles of the Indian people bore fruit when the Government of India Act of 1935 prescribed provincial autonomy and the government announced elections to the provincial legislatures in 1937.
Thus it was successful in its objectives.
Which of the following was part of the national movement?
a. Picketing shops that sell foreign clothes
b. Hand spinning thread to weave clothes
c. Burning imported clothes d. Wearing khaddar
e. All the above
e) All the above
What were the different events that led to the partition?
- In 1940, the Muslim League had moved a resolution demanding the Independent States for Muslims.
- From the late 1930s, the League began viewing the Muslims as a separate ‘nation’ from the Hindus.
- The provincial elections of 1937 seemed to have convinced the League that Muslims were a minority and they would always have to play second fiddle in any democratic structure.
- Muslim League sought to enlarge its support in the early 1940s when most Congress leaders were in jail.
- At the end of the war in 1945, the British opened negotiations between the Congress, the League but failed.
- In 1946 elections the Congress did well in the ‘Genera! Constituencies’ but the League’s success in the seats reserved for Muslims was spectacular. It persisted with its demand for “Pakistan”.
- The Cripps Mission could not get the Congress and the Muslim League to agree to specific details of the proposal – the United India.
- Muslim League announced 16th August, 1946 as ‘Direct Action Day’. By March, 1947 violence spread to different parts of northern India.
- Louis Mountbatten was not able to resolve the differences between the Muslim League and the Congress Party.
- India became independent on 15th August, 1947 while Pakistan celebrated its independence on 14th August.
Look at the India map and fill colors in Pakistan and Bangladesh which are our adjacent countries.
Note: The students are advised to fill colours in Pakistan and Bangladesh in practise.
Both Pakistan and Bangladesh are our neighbouring countries.
Read the first paragraph under the heading ‘The Happenings of 1922-1929’ and answer this, ‘Gandhiji called off the movement after the violence. How do you support it?
The Non-Cooperation Movement held in February 1922 turned violent. A crowd of peasants set fire to a police station in Chauri Chaura. Twenty-two policemen were killed on that day. Realizing that the situation was going bad to worse, Gandhiji abruptly called off the movement.
Gandhiji followed non-violence and Satyagraha. Those were against this violence. Hence I support Gandhiji’s decision.
As a part of Non-Cooperation movement, what incidents took place in our state?
Guntur district was at the centre of nationalist activity and the participation was very widespread including not only students, but also merchants and peasants in the villages. A highlight of the Non-Cooperation movement was the famous Chirala Perala movement. The government decided to convert this town into a municipality and forced high taxes. About 15,000 people of the town led by Duggirala Gopalakrishnayya refused to pay the taxes and migrated to a new settlement called Ramnagar and remained there for eleven months. There was a powerful movement of non-payment of land revenue by the peasants and mass resignations of village officers. People said, “Gandhiji’s swaraj is coming and we will not pay taxes to this government.”
Another major development was the Forest Satyagraha in Palnati taluka of Guntur district and also in Rayachoti taluka of Kadapa district. Peasants began sending herds of cattle into the forests without paying grazing fees to the forest department. In many villages of Palnadu, people declared Gandhi Raj and attacked police parties. People were convinced that the colonial rule was coming to an end and the forests would be back in the control of the village people. In the two taluqs, the forest administration had to virtually close down during the agitation period.
These were some of the incidents that took place in our state as a part of Non-Cooperation movement.
Write a brief note on Quit India Movement.
- On 8th August, 1942 the Quit India Movement was launched.
- In this movement all the categories of people from throughout India participated.
- Younger activists organized strikes and acts of sabotage all over the country.
- In several districts, such as Satara in the west and Medinipur in the east, “independent” governments were proclaimed.
- The young in very large members, left their colleges to go to jail.
- During this time Mahatma Gandhi addressed these memorable words to the Indian people. “Every one of you should from this movement onwards consider yourself a free man or woman and act as if you are free. I am not going to be satisfied with anything short of complete freedom. We shall “do or die”. We shall either free India or die in the attempt”. Like this he encouraged all people to participate in this movement. Due to the above reasons Quit India movement become popular.
Prepare a timeline chart on Freedom Struggle from 1885 to 1947.
|1) 1885||Indian National Congress established.|
|2) 1886||Congress representatives were elected for local bodies (436).|
|3) 1885-1905||The period of Moderates|
|4) 1903||Swadeshi movement.|
|5) 1905||‘Vande Mataram1 movement against the partition of Bengal.|
|6) 1905-1920||The period of Extremists.|
|7) 1907||A split in Congress|
|8) 1915||Home Rule movement by Tilak and Annie Besant.|
|9) 1916||Congress united in Lucknow pact.|
|10) 1915||Gandhiji arrived – joined in Indian freedom movement.|
|11) 1917||Champaran local movement|
|12) 1918||Kheda struggle|
|13) 1919||Ahmedabad Mill workers strike, Satyagraha against the Rowlatt Act.|
|14) 1920||Khilafat movement|
|15) 1921||Non-Cooperation Movement|
|16) 1922||Chauri-Chaura incident, called off Civil disobedience|
|17) 1930||Dandi Satyagraha – Civil disobedience recalled on.|
|18) 1935||Government of India Act|
|19) 1937||Elections to the provincial legislatures|
|20) 1940-1945||Radical Nationalists period|
|21) 1942||Quit India Movement|
|22) 1942-44||Parallel government of Midnapur people|
|23) 1946||Elections, Muslim League persisted for separate Pakistan|
|24) 1946||Cripps Mission, Muslim League announced as Direct Action Day|
|25) 1947||Violence spread to different parts of northern India.|
|26) 1947-14th Aug||Independence to Pakistan|
|1947-15th Aug||India became independent|
Did the fruits of sacrifices of many great leaders of Independence movement reach all the people? Mention your opinion on this.
My opinion: I think that the fruits of sacrifices of many great leaders of independence movement reached all the people in the early period after independence. But it is sorry to say that the spirit of independence is hanged at present.
- lack of belongingness etc.
8th Class Social Studies 11th Lesson National Movement: The Last Phase 1919-1947 InText Questions and Answers
Do you think it is right to give the police such powers to suppress revolts? (Textbook Page No. 130)
Terrorism and showing anger through demonstrations are two delicate issues. The police should recognise the tenderness and difference between these two. Then only it is right to give such powers.
Find out more about Chirala Perala Movement and the Forest Satyagraha. Prepare a skit and enact it in the class. (Textbook Page No. 132)
Independence Movement -1919
Ram Nagar Camp (Chirala I Perala)
Ramudu: Arey! Raja, why did you leave our village?
Raja: Not only myself, totally our Chirala / Perala villagers left our village.
Sekhar: What? I think this ¡s our fate, we have to leave our houses.
Yaswanth: That is not our fate. That is the fate of the Britishers. They tried to raise our tax Rs. 4000/- to Rs. 40,000/-. It is really a cruel action.
Ramudu: Leave it. Gandhiji gave us a beautiful idea.
Raja: Yes ra! His idea, the leadership of Duggirala Gopalakrishnayya are very well. Let us hope that these British will leave us soon.
Yaswanth: Are you right? Will they leave us?
Sekhar: Why do they leave us? They arrest us for our retort.
Raja: Let them do that. We will sacrifice our lives but we dont leave them.
All: Okay ra! Let us do like that.
Gandhiji – Jai
Duggirala – Jai
Bharat Matha – Jai
Jai – Jai
1921 – Forest Satyagraha
Kanneganti Hanumanthu – Palnati Warrior
Age: 30 years
In Palnati Forest
Orey Britishoda ! Who is the person that asked us to pay pullari tax. We, the sons of this land, you, the dependent on this land. Why should we pay tax to you ? Is it just ? Is it Dharma? Do you think that the son of this Palnadu will do this – English dogs.
Orey Rutherford! This forest is our mother. Our own mother. Why should we pay you for our mother’s blessings.
Neeru pettava ? Naru vesava ? Kota kosava ? Kuppa nurchava ? Enduku kattalira sistu, Enduku kattalira neeku sistu.
Enduku, Enduku ?
Amma, Amma, if you kill me ….
Amma – Thousands of Hanumanthus will born ….
You, the Britishers, will be chased – chased and necked out of our country.
Amma-Amma Vande Mataram.
Bharatha Matha – Selav.
In the next birth also I will be your son – I will play in freedom.
Van … de … maa …. tar.. am.
Why do you think were people against such laws during the freedom movement? (Textbook Page No. 180)
- Most of the police and higher officials were Britishers at that time.
- It was most difficult for the people to been the dictatorship.
- Introducing such laws at that time was like pouring ghee into the fire. So they were against such laws.