AP State Syllabus 8th Class Social Studies Important Questions 10th Lesson Landlords and Tenants under the British and the Nizam
Did the Zamindar own all the lands of the villages in the Mughal times?
No. They owned some of the village lands. They had the power to collect revenue from the villagers. Rest of the land was owned by peasants and others.
What did the Zamindars do for the Mughal government and what did they get in return?
The Zamindars collected the revenue from the peasantry on behalf of Mughal emperors. In return they received a share of revenue collected. Sometimes they also had right to collect some small local taxes.
How would the changes have affected the position of the farmers who tilled the land for several generations?
- This settlement inadvertently converted all the peasants into the tenants.
- Since rent collected was much higher than the revenue, the cultivators could not pay and sometimes deserted the lands. These were the affects.
What is the difference between revenue and rent?
Revenue: Tax on land which is paid to the Zamindars or government.
Rent: Amount paid to the owners of the land for using and cultivating it.
In what ways did the government invest in agriculture during the early British rule? Do you think it could have been done by farmers themselves?
- The Britishers made necessary advances to the ryots to purchase seeds, implements, bullocks and to repair old wells or dig new ones,
- They constructed anicuts & canals. It could not have been done by farmers themselves.
How was a ‘dora’ different from an ordinary landlord?
The large landlords were called Doras. They had a large retinue of servants and soldiers. Ordinary landlords were under the control of these ‘doras’. Landlords should follow the orders of ‘Doras’. This is the difference between them.
How do you think it was possible for the zamindars to keep increasing their incomes without increasing investment in the land?
The prices of grains in the market rose and cultivation slowly expanded. So there was an increase in the income of Zamindars without increasing investment in the land.
Who do you think would have benefited from the Ryotwari Settlement – the farmers, the landlords or the British? Give reasons.
The landlords would have benefited from the Ryotwari settlement.
- There was an increase in the number of landlords in the Ryotwari area.
- They showed much interest in giving their lands on rents rather than cultivation.
Why do you think the ryots did not invest in improving agriculture or extending agriculture?
The prices rose faster than the land revenue and the ryots found it more profitable to employ tenants to cultivate their lands and receive rent from them. So they did not invest in improving agriculture or extending agriculture.
Who ultimately profited from production for export market and why?
Moneylenders profited ultimately from production for export market. They lent more and more money to farmers on high-interest rates and profited.
Discuss the changes in the lives of traditional crafts persons and village artists.
Traditional crafts persons are adding technology to their tradition. As the prices are high, there is no demand for their products. Village artists had enjoyed the encouragement of the Kings and Zamindars. Now they lack it. So their lives are in worse condition.
How are we paying the taxes nowadays?
At present revenue is paid in the form of money.
Have you heard of any similar rapid rise or decline in prices of any agricultural produce in our own times? Find out about its impact on the farmers.
In recent past, there was an increase in the prices of rice and red gram. Later they were reduced by the government. Peasants grew some crops thinking of high profits. If the demand fell, they would get losses that year.
Why do you think the Zamindars kept the soldiers and small forts?
Zamindars had some villages under their control. They were the mediators between the rulers and the ruled. They had much income also. So they lived in small forts.
To protect their people from thefts and attacks, to collect revenues they needed soldiers. So they maintained them.
Why did the high revenue rates prevent zamindars and farmers from improving agriculture?
As they paid heavy rates of rents and revenue from their income, they were not able to improve agriculture. They used the remaining amounts for their household purposes.
During the freedom movement the Zamindars normally supported the British. Can you explain why?
The policies of Zamindars created a gap between them and their people. They earned more assets in the British reign. So they normally supported the British during the freedom movement.
Who introduced the Permanent Settlement of Tax and when?
Cornwallis introduced this in 1793.
Why did the war in America lead to increase in prices of cotton in India?
In 1861, there was Civil war in America and British factories turned to India for supply of cotton. As a result cotton prices soared high.
Why were famines caused under British rule? Do you think it was because of failure of rains or floods?
The rains and floods caused one or two famines during the British rule. Most of the famines occurred due to their dictatorial rule. They exported food grains in the famines. They had no interference when the merchants created artificial scarcity by hoarding food grains. They didn’t work for the welfare of the people in India. So the famines were caused.
Write the names of any two peasant movements.
The Deccan riots of 1860s, Rampa fituries, Moppila agitations etc.
Match the following.
1) 1865/66 ( ) A) Dhawaleshwaram anicut
2) 1860 ( ) B) Anicut over the Krishna river at Vijayawada
3) 1793 ( ) C) Ganjam famine
4) f1849 ( ) D) Permanent settlement
5) 1854 ( ) E) The Deccan riots
Imagine that you live in the ‘Ceded Districts’, find put about the Palegars who fought with the British.
Many wars were broken out between Palegars and the British from 1798 to 1805. First war was fought between Veerapandya and the British in 1799. Second main war was fought between a group of Palegars and the British. After a long and expensive campaign the British finally defeated the revolting Palegars of whom many were beheaded and hanged while others were deported to the Andaman Islands. Of the Palegars who submitted to the British some of them granted Zamindari status, which had only tax collection rights and disarmed them completely.