AP State Syllabus AP Board 8th Class Biology Solutions Chapter 1 What is Science Textbook Questions and Answers.
AP State Syllabus 8th Class Biology Solutions 1st Lesson What is Science
8th Class Biology 1st Lesson What is Science Textbook Questions and Answers
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What is Science?
- Science is the concerted human effort to understand the history of the natural world how the natural world works, with observable physical evidence.
- Science is an organized study of knowledge which is based on experimentation.
- Science is a tool for searching truths of nature.
- Science is the way of exploring the world.
What are scientific methods ? Write the steps involved in a scientist’s work.
- Scientists solve a problem or answer a question by using organized ways. They are called “Scientific Methods”.
- The following are the steps involved in a scientific work.
a) Step -1 : Ask questions.
b) Step – 2 : Form hypothesis.
c) Step – 3 : Plan experiments.
d) Step – 4 : Conduct experiments.
e) Step – 5 : Draw conclusions.
What is the way to find out solutions for the problems in scientific way?
To find out solutions for the problems in scientific way we need to follow a sequential order. So we go through the following.
- Identifying problem : Let us identify any problems from your surroundings.
Ex: The bulb did not lit in the room.
- Making hypothesis: List out different solutions which your think for the identifying problem.
Ex: De filament, fuse failure, switch problem, wire problem.
- Collecting information: To solve the identifying problem collect material, apparatus, Information, persons.
Ex: Collect material like tester, screwdriver, wooden scale, wires, insulation tape, table and blade.
- Data analysis: Arrange the collected data or information to conduct experiment.
- Experimentation: To prove selecting hypothesis conduct experiment.
Ex: Observe filament of the bulb.
- Result analysis: Analyzing the results to find out the solution for the problem based on the results you need to select another hypothesis to prove.
Ex: Filament of the bulb is good in condition so we need to observe fuse.
- Generalisation: Based on the experiment and its results explain the solution for the problem.
Ex: Fuse is damaged so the bulb not glow, so we need to replace the fuse.
During investigation in science, name some rules to be followed for the safety.
- Think ahead: Study the steps of the investigation, so you know what to expect.
- Be neat: Keep your work area clean.
- Oops!: If you should spill or break something or get cut, tell your teacher right away.
- Watch your eyes: Wear safety goggles anytime you are directed to do so.
- Yuck!: Never eat or drink anything during a scientific activity.
- Protect yourself from shocks: Be especially careful if an electric appliance is used. Be sure that electric cords are in a safe place where you can’t trip over them. Don’t ever pull a plug out an outlet by pulling on the cord.
- Keep it clean: Always clean up when you have finished.
If you plan a test to find out how much water different brands of paper towels absorb, write down the steps of the experiment.
- Pour 1 liter of water into each of three beakers.
- Put a towel from each of the three brands into a different beaker for 10 seconds.
- Pull the towel out of the water, and let it drain back into the beaker for 5 seconds.
- Measure the amount of water left in each beaker.
- The towel put in the beaker in which less amount of water is left absorbs more water.
Collect information about scientists and their works and prepare a chart and paste it in your classroom.
What are process skills ?
Observe, compare, classify are the process skills.
- Observe – Use the senses to learn about objects and events.
- Compare – Identify characteristics of things or events to find out how they are alike and different.
- Classify – Group or organize objects or events in categories based on specific characteristics.
Read the following.
You may find that these animals are specifically found in certain regions of the world.
You are also aware of the fact that many plants and animals are widely distributed throughout the world. But some species of plants and animals are found restricted to some areas only. Plants or animal species found restricted to a particular area of a country are called Endemic Species.
Now answer the following questions.
a) Name an Endemic Species of our State.
Tiger, Peacock and Crane.
b) You may notice that Kangaroo is endemic to Australia and Kiwi to New Zealand. Can you tell which among the above picures represent an endemic species of India ?
Peacock and Tiger.
c) Name some other endemic species of India.
Indian Lion, Indian Wolf, Great Indian bustard bill.
Reading the following poster.
Producers – Mangrove, spirogyra, euglena, oscillatoria, blue green algae, ulothrix, etc.
Consumers – Shrimp, crab, hydra, protozoans, mussel, snails, turtle, daphnia, brittle word, tube worm, etc.
Decomposers – Detritus feeding bacteria, etc.
Abiotic components – Salt and fresh water, air, sunlight, soil, etc.
What is Generalisation? Give an example.
Based on the experiment and its results explaining the solution for the problem is called Generalisation.
a) The bulb did not light in the room.
b) Identify the problem that may be defilament, fuse failure, switch problem, wire problem.
c) Then take tester, screwdriver, wooden scale, wires, insulation tape, table and blade.
d) Observe the filament of the bulb.
e) If the filament of the bulb is good, then observe fuse.
f) As the fuse is damaged, we need to replace the fuse.
Based on this, the bulb did not lit in the room because the fuse is damaged. This is the generalisation in the above experiment.
What are the different types of writings used by scientists to describe what they are doing or learning?
- Informative writing, Narrative writing, Expressive writing, Persuasive writing are used by the Scientists.
- In informative writing, scientists describe the observation, inferences and their conclusion.
- In narrative writing the scientists describe about something, give examples or tell a story.
- In expressive writing, they may write letters, poems, or songs.
- In persuasive writing they write letters about important issues in science and also write about what they have learned about science which helps others to understand about their thinking.
How do scientists use numbers in their investigations?
- Measuring, interpreting data, using number sense are few methods used by scientists in their investigations.
- Scientists make accurate measurements by using different measuring instruments like thermometer clocks, timers, rules, a spring scale, beakers, balance and other containers to measure liquids.
- Scientists collect, organize, display and interpret data by using tables, charts and graphs.
- Scientists compare and order numbers, compute with numbers shown on graphs and read the scales on thermometers, measuring cups, beakers and other tools.
- Good scientists apply their maths skills to help them display and interpret the data they collect.
What is Hypothesis? What are variables?
- Making a statement about an expected outcome is called Hypothesis.
- Variables are factors that can affect the outcome of the investigation.
What do the following persons do?
a) A geologist
b) A chemist
c) A biologist
d) An ecologist
e) A climatologist
a) A geologist examines the distribution of fossils and makes observations to find patterns in natural phenomena.
b) A chemist observes the rate of a chemical reaction at a variety of temperatures.
c) A biologist observes the reaction of a particular tissue to various stimulants.
d) An ecologist observes the territorial behaviours of different animals and birds.
e) A climatologist collects data from weather balloons and makes observations basing on it.