AP State Syllabus 7th Class Social Important Questions 8th Lesson Industrial Revolution
Write any two innovations which led to the industrial revolution in Europe.
- Spinning Jenney
- Steam engine
Development and expansion of industries lead to a gradual increase in people to Urban areas. Comment on consequences of Urbanisation.
Due to this
- Slums are increasing.
- Substandard housing with very poor living conditions.
- Physical deterioration of its housing overcrowding, high density, poor access, and lack of infrastructure services.
- Restricted access to the water supply.
- Increase living conditions.
- Inadequate health care facilities etc.
Explain Industrial Revolution considering the following points,
- the putting-out system.
- proto – industrialisation,
- major inventions and their contribution,
- the factory system of production.
- The putting-out system:
In this system, traders gave advances to small farmers and artisans to produce textile goods.
1. In this system capitalists controlled what product was to be made.
2. Different activities could be done in different parts of the country.
In this system is more time-consuming.
- Proto – Industrialisation:
In this system, traders brought together the crafts persons under one roof so that they did not have to go to each one’s home or explain their requirements to each person.
Here, the control of the trader over the crafts persons increased.
- Major inventions and their contributions:
In this period so many new machines were invented by Europeans. Those are useful in the production process.
Ex: James Watt – Steam Engine
- Factory system of production:
In this system in the place of simple tools and manual power, new machines and steam power came to be increasingly used.
“Major changes swept industries with the coming of machines, Machines could be worked by even unskilled persons. Thus, skilled artisans were no longer required. In their place, a large number of women and children were employed and made to work for meager wages.”
Discuss the hardships faced by women and child laborers during the industrial revolution.
- Conditions had often been toxic and dangerous.
- Women face abuse and discrimination.
- Women were paid less than men.
- Child labour also worked more than 12 hours a day.
- Children were often faced with difficulties and workplace abuses.
- In mines, factories or other workplaces, kids would work in hot and hazardous conditions for low wage rates and that for long exhausting hours.
- The factories and mines were unsafe and demanding places to work.
If Pravallika argues “Railways in India were built for the benefits of the colonial rulers”. Express your opinion about this argument.
No. It is not true. The English built railways not only for the benefit of Indian people but to transport raw material to Indian ports and manufactured goods of England from Indian ports into the country. To transport cheap labour from villages to cities, and to transport their troops fast and easily to the nooks and corners of the country to link up all their trading centers in all parts of the country British established railways in India.
However, as times changed, European countries began to useless and less of their own mineral resources and relied on imports from other countries. The old mining towns and factories were closed down and new factories grew in new areas.
Question: “Due to the Industrial revolution Europe has become a developed continent. Write your comment.
- The industrial revolution spurred growth and attracted a lot of people from villages to cities.
- Cities expanded rapidly and new cities were being built near factories to house industrial workers who had to live somewhere.
- This kind of urbanization was not a good thing.
- City people often lived in cramped, overcrowded housing with poor sanitation and disease and crime multiplied.
- Workers face harsh conditions both at home and workplace.
- People laboured for long hours with low wages in dangerous conditions with no job security. That is why the govt enacts laws to improve working conditions.
In the 19th century, the industrial workers of Europe had to face several hardships.
Let us read about the experiences of a child employed in an English coal mine.
“I have been working in these mines since I was four. Workers hew coal with pickaxes and fill the large wagons with it. Our job is to push these loaded wagons to the point from where horses or mules can haul them. This is a very difficult job. Hauling the loaded wagons through water and slush, and over very steep slopes, leaves us very tired. We have to work in this way for more than 12 hours a day. By the time we return home, we are so tired that we don’t even feel like eating. Yesterday, I fell asleep on my way home. My mother searched for me and carried me home.
Q. Comment on the need for the complete removal of child labour from our society.
- The present children are future citizens.
- Below 14 years if they are working their childhood is exploited and their life span is less.
- If children are employed in hazardous work they effect by diseases and no longer work.
- Our country’s development is on children only. So with skill youth not available in India.
When did the factory system of production emerge? How?
- During 1750 – 1850, a new system called the ‘factory system’ emerged.
- In the place of simple tools and manual power, new machines and steam power came to be increasingly used.
- Production was now carried on in a place called ‘factory’. Earlier the production was happening in homes.
- Hundreds of workers were brought together to work in these large factories.
- Machines became important in place of minor tools and handlooms.
- They produced goods on a very large scale.
- Capitalists invested money to bring workers, raw materials, and machines.
- Everything belonged to the owner of the factory, from raw materials and machines to finished products.
What is meant by Revolution?
Revolution means, to bring a fundamental change or transformation of the existing practice. Revolution also means a transformation of ideas, thoughts, and practices of the people. Without revolution or changes, society and its structure remain static.
What is meant by Industrial Revolution?
- During the 18th century, new changes took place in the field of production and distribution.
- On account of the industrial revolution, manpower was replaced by machine power.
- Production increased by leaps and bounds.
- These rapid changes came to be known as Industrial Revolution.
- Industrial Revolution may be defined as a marked change in the system of production of goods.
What does capitalism mean? Write two advantages of capitalism.
Capitalism means the form of organization where industrialists owning money, purchase machinery, raw materials, and run the industries. They enjoy the profits.
- Goods were produced in plenty.
- There was employment generation.
Who was employed to work on machines?
Machines could be worked by even unskilled persons. Thus skilled artisans are no longer required. In their place, a large number of women and children were employed and made to work for meager wages.
Compare the conditions of workers of a leather tannery and the English workers 150 years ago and find out similarities and differences.
|S.No.||Conditions of workers in a leather tannery||Conditions of English workers 150 years ago|
|1.||Most of the workers in a tannery feed the leather to the machines.||In place of skilled workers, women and children were employed.|
|2.||Machines could be worked by unskilled workers.||Most of the workers start as laborers and learn their skills on the job.|
|3.||In wet operations, workers wear rubber aprons and gloves to handle wet and slippery hides.||No protection wear was given to the workers. Working in unhygienic conditions.|
|4.||Dry end workers handle only lightweight.||Children were employed to push heavily loaded wagons to the point where the horses or mules can haul them.|
|5.||Some tasks in this industry may be unpleasant because of the sights and smells.||In the dyeing units of the textile industry and in other chemical Industries there used to be unhygienic conditions.|
|6.||Many tannery workers work the day shift eight hours a day, forty hours a week.||Workers had to work more than 12 hours a day.|
|7.||The average earnings of a worker is Rs. 500 to Rs. 600 a day.||The workers had to work with meager wages, with which they cannot satisfy their minimum needs.|
|8.||Most tanneries offer health insurance, paid holidays, and paid vacations. Some tanneries offer pensions.||No such facilities were there.|
|9.||Workers form unions to protect their rights.||Workers did not have any right to form unions.|
What is meant by Proto – industrialization?
- The traders brought together the craftspersons under one roof so that they did not
have to go to each one’s home or explain their requirements to each person.
- They set up small workshops called manufactories.
- The craftsmen brought their own tools and worked with raw materials given by the trader.
- The trader then took the produce and sold it in the market.
- In this way slowly the control of the trader over the craftspersons increased. This phase is called ‘Proto – industrialization’.
How did the need for self-driven machines emerge in England?
As the demand for cloth, and other handicrafts increased many times, many artisans could not increase the production to cope with the demand. In addition to that cloth made on looms by the artisans was very much expensive. If there were machines that could spin yarn faster and wave cloth faster, the cloth could be produced at a lower price. As a result of the pressure of trade and work, several people attempted making self-driven machines in England.
Explain the Transport Revolution caused by the invention of the Steam Engine.
The invention of the steam engine boosted the shipping industry. It also reduced the cost of transportation by one-third of the cost of road transport. Yet people looked for better ways of transportation. The next big thing in the context of transport was the adaptation of steam engines to locomotives. George Stephenson’s locomotive pulled heavy loads along a 64-kilometer track from Liverpool to Manchester at 46-kilometer speed in an hour.
In the 1840s, John Loudon Me Adam devised a method of laying roads using broken stones. This created a hard surface which was an important advancement in road construction. Within another decade bitumen-based binding which we see in our areas as tar(mac) roads were built. This was further followed by the use of motor cars.
Read the following passage and answer the questions.
During 1750 – 1850, a new system called the ‘factory system’ emerged. In the place of simple tools and manual power, new machines and steam power came to be increasingly used. Production was now carried on in a place called ‘factory’, unlike what we read earlier where production was happening in homes. Hundreds of workers were brought together to work in these large factories. Machines became important in place of minor tools and handlooms. They produced goods on a very large scale.
1. When did the new system emerge?
During 1750 – 1850 a new system emerged which is called the ‘factory system’.
2. What is meant by the factory?
A place where production was carried on is called a factory.
3. Which became important in place of minor tools?
4. How did they produce goods?
They produced goods on a large scale.
5. Where was the production happening earlier?
Earlier the production was happening in the houses of workers or craftsmen.
“Industrial revolution led to increasing of urban slums in towns and life in slums became common scenario.” Explain it. (OR)
What are the problems faced by the people living in the urban slums?
Which type of problems are the people who reside in urban slums facing today?
- Industries and other urban activities gave people the necessary livelihood.
- People moved to the towns and settled down in makeshift houses and shelters.
- They were cramped and had little sanitation and other facilities.
- Accidents, diseases, and epidemics were common. Most workers’ residential areas lacked proper ventilation, health, and sanitation facilities.
- Slums became a common scenario in towns and cities especially near the factories and
- At the same time, distinct quarters came up for the rich and powerful which were well provided in terms of open spaces, sanitation, water supply, roads, and other facilities.
- Slowly people fought for civic rights and the conditions of the worker’s quarters too improved.
- People were accustomed to luxurious life and towns were polluted.
What are the sources of energy needed to run machines?
- Energy is available from coal, electricity, petroleum, and so on.
- Initially, industries depended upon energy coal, and steam.
- Subsequently, several other sources of energy like thermal and hydroelectricity, petroleum, natural gas, nuclear energy, and solar energy have been harnessed.
Do you know any factories nearby?
Compare the conditions of work of that factory with that of English factories 150 years ago.
Yes. I know many factories nearby. There is a spinning mill in our area.
150 years ago i.e., in the nineteenth century the industrial workers of Europe had to face several hardships. The early factories were dreadful places of work.
- With the Industrial revolution, machinery was used heavily in industrial production. With the introduction of machinery, skilled workers were expelled from their jobs. But these days it cannot be done. These days workers have the right to employment security.
- In place of skilled labour, the women and children were employed and made to work for meagre wages. But these days child labour is banned and it is a punishable crime if anyone employs children under 14. More than that under the right to income security every worker has the right to get adequate and regular income.
- Those days the labour were forced to work for more than 12 hours under the whip. But these days every worker should work for only 8 hours a day and he has the right to leisure and rest.
- Thus the conditions of labourers have been improved a lot these days comparing to those of 150 years ago.
Locate the following on the world map.
- United Kingdom
Do you think the arrangement between a scientist-inventor and a capitalist is fair? Give reasons.
Yes. It was an agreement. The capitalist Boulton invested the necessary money and also paid Watt a salary. Watt made the steam engine. They made an agreement between them to share profit, two-third to Boulton’s and one-third to Watt’s. These two persons made a large number of steam engines, sold them, and made huge profits.
How were the colonies established?
Because of the industrial revolution, industrial production increased so much that the large-scale production of goods needs raw materials in large amounts. But in countries where the industrial revolution took place, the raw materials were not produced.
At the same time production of goods in industries increased manifold. They were unable to sell all their products in their own country. For selling the surplus production they are required to acquire markets of other countries. To buy the raw materials needed for their markets at cheaper rates, and to sell their manufactured products at higher rates to get maximum profits, the industrial countries want to colonize the countries like India.