AP 10th Class Social History 2nd Lesson Questions and Answers Nationalism in India

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Nationalism in India Questions and Answers AP 10th Class Social History 2nd Lesson

Question 1.
a) Why growth of nationalism in the colonies is linked to an anti-colonial movement.
b) How the First World War helped in the growth of the National Movement in India?
c) Why Indians were outraged by the Rowlatt Act?
d) Why Gandhiji decided to withdraw the Non-Cooperation Movement?

  1. The sense of being oppressed under colonialism provided a shared bond and it tied many different groups.
  2. People began discovering their unity in the process of their struggle with colonialism.
  3. The movements of freedom struggle were joined by the masses to free themselves from foreign exploitation.
  4. In this way, the growth of nationalism in the colonies is linked to anti-colonial movements.


  1. The First World War led to a huge increase in defence expenditure.
  2. To finance the defence expenditure customs duties were raised and income tax was introduced.
  3. Forced recruitment in rural areas caused widespread anger.
  4. Through the war years prices increased – doubled between 1913 and 1918. This led to extreme hardship for the common people.
  5. In 1918-19 and 1920-21 crops failed in many parts of India and it resulted in acute shortages of food.
  6. There was an influenza epidemic. All these caused extensive anger and opposition against the British colonial rule and the National Movement of India.


  1. Though united opposition of the Indian members opposed, the Imperial Legislative council hurriedly passed the Rowlatt Act (1919)
  2. This Act gave the government enormous powers to repress political activities, and allowed detention of political prisoners without trial for two years.
  3. It was clearly injustice and oppressive for Indians. So, Indians were outraged by the Rowlatt Act.


  1. The movement turned violent in many places.
  2. In 1922 at Chauri Chaura in Gorakhpur a peaceful demonstration in a bazaar turned into a violent clash with the police.
  3. Hearing of the incident, Mahatma Gandhi called a halt to the Non-cooperation movement.
  4. Gandhi opinioned that Satyagrahis needed to be properly trained before they would be ready for mass struggles.

AP 10th Class Social History 2nd Lesson Questions and Answers Nationalism in India

Question 2.
What is meant by the idea of Satyagraha?

  1. Satyagraha was a novel method of mass agitation against the oppressor.
  2. Satyagraha emphasised the power of truth and the need to search the truth.
  3. Satyagraha suggest that if the cause was true and if the struggle was against the injustice, there is no need for physical force to fight the oppressor.
  4. People including the oppressors had to be persuaded to see the truth instead of being forced to accept the truth through the use of violence.
  5. In this struggle ultimately the truth was bound to be victorious.

Question 3.
Write a newspaper report on :
a) The Jallianwala Bagh massacre
b) The Simon Commission
a) The Jallianwala Bagh Massacre on Baisakhi Day
14th April, 1919.
Amritsar : Being Baisakhi day Amritsar and village people came to attend annual Baisakhi fair. It also marks the start of the harvest season in Punjab and Haryana. As you know on 10th April, the police in Amritsar fired upon a peaceful procession and General Dyer imposed Martial law. Along with them some came to protest against the
governmentVnew repressive measures.

The villagers do not know that Martial law was imposed in the city. So large crowd gathered in the ground of Jallianwala Bagh grounds. It was a peaceful gathering and people were enjoying. General Dyer could not tolerate the gathering. He entered the area blocked the exit points and opened fire on the crowd, killing hundreds. Among them women and children were there. It is injustice with the people of Punjab,

b) The Simon Commission :
Appointment of Simon Commission
Britain 1928: The new Tory government in Britain constituted a statutory commission and Sir John Simon. It was a group of seven members of the British Parliament. It was set up in response to the nationalist movement. The Commission was to look into the functioning of the constitutional system in India and suggest changes. Surprisingly there was no Indian member. All were British. But the object of the commission is to look into an Indian problems. This is gross injustice. Indians must raise their voice against it and resist the commission at all levels, so that the British government may include Indians in the commission.

Question 4.
Compare the images of Bharat mata in this chapter with the image of Germania in Cahpter 1.
AP 10th Class Social History 2nd Lesson Questions and Answers Nationalism in India Img 1

  1. The image of Bharat Mata was the symbol of the Indian Nation.
    The image of Germania was the symbol of German Nation.
  2. Both Bharat Mata and Germania inspired the nationalists who worked to unify their nation and to attain a independent nation.
  3. The image of Bharat Mata painted by Abanindranath Tagore is bestowed with learning, food, clothing and some ascetic quality. The image of Germania was painted by Philip Veit in the year 1848.
  4. Another painting of Bharat Mata in which we find Bharat Mata holding Trishul and standing beside a lion and an elephant – symbols of power and authority. This image appears to be more similar to the image of Germania where she holds a sword and a shield.
    These images popularised the idea of sacrifice and devotion towards one’s mother nation.


Question 1.
List all the different social groups which joined the Non-Cooperation Movement of 1921. Then choose any three and write about their hopes and struggles to show why they joined the movement.
The different social groups that joined the Non-Cooperation Movement of 1921 were :

  • Middle class people – students, headmasters, teachers, lawers etc.
  • Political parties – except the Justice Party of Madras the party of non-brahmins.
  • Traders and merchants.
  • Peasants of Awadh.
  • Tribals of Andhra Pradesh.
  • Plantation workers from Assam.

1) Peasants : Peasants participated in the movement because they hoped that they would be saved from the oppressive landlords, high taxes imposed by the colonial government, abolition of begar and a variety of so many other reasons.

2) Tribals : The tribals were not allowed to enter the forest as they were reserved by the colonial government. The tribals could not collect fuelwood from forests. Tribal people graze cattle in the forests. As forests were reserved they were not able to graze them in the forests. So, the lives of the tribals came to a standstill. Under the leadership of Alluri Sitarama Raju the tribals rebelled against the oppressive British Government.

3) Middle Class People : The middle class people in cities participated in Non-Cooperation Movement in order to boycott the British. Headmasters, teachers, students left schools, lawyers gave up their professional life to participate in the Non-Cooperation movement expecting Swaraj.

4) Plantation Workers: Plantation workers assumed that Non-Cooperation Movement meant that they can return to their villages without any restrictions. So, they defied the authorities, left the plantations and headed home. They also believed that Gandhi Raj world come and everyone will be given land in their own villages. But they could not reach their destinations because of railway and steamer worker’s strike and were caught by the police and beaten up.

Question 2.
Discuss the Salt March to make clear why it was an effective symbol of resistance against colonialism.

  1. Salt is consumed by rich and poor alike. Gandhi found salt as a powerful commodity that could unite the nation.
  2. pandhi declared that the tax on salt and the government’s monopoly over it’s production was the most oppressive face of British rule.
  3. Gandhiji sent a letter to Viceroy Irwin stating eleven demands. The most important among them was to abolish the tax on salt.
  4. As, Irwin was unwilling to negotiate Gandhi started Salt March and reached Dandi on 12th March 1930 and violated salt law by manufacturing salt from sea water.
  5. Breaking the salt law was apparent defiance of British authority and was a direct challenge to the colonial rule in India. It had a far-reaching effect on the whole structure of colonialism.
  6. By the Salt March Gandhi set forth an example to the whole nation or how the oppressor could be confronted in a non-violent manner. Later this led to the Civil Disobedience Movement in 1930.

Question 3.
Imagine you are a woman participating in the Civil Disobedience Movement. Explain what the experience meant to your life.

  1. In response to the call of Mahatma Gandhi, I participated in the Civil Disobedience Movement.
  2. I participated in protest marches, manufactured salt, boycotted foreign cloth and picketted liquor ships and went to jail.
  3. In my opinion all these were sacred duties of women.
  4. In my opinion this is a proud movement.

AP 10th Class Social History 2nd Lesson Questions and Answers Nationalism in India

Question 4.
Why did political leaders differ sharply over the question of separate electorates ?

  1. Many dalit leaders were keen on a different political solution to the problems of heir communities.
  2. They believed that political empowerment would resolve the problems of their social disabilities.
  3. They began organising themselves, demanding a separate electorate that would choose dalit members for legislative councils.
  4. Dr. B.R. Ambedkar who organised the dalits into the Depressed classes Association in 1930, clashed with Gandhi at the Second Round Table conference demanding separate electorates for Dalits.
  5. But Gandhi opined that separate electorates for dalit would slow down the process of their integration into the society.
  6. After the decline of Khilafat and Non-cooperation movement many Muslim leaders and intellectuals express their concern about the status of Muslims as a minority within Inciia.
  7. Muslims feared that the culture and identity of minorities would be submerged under the domination of Hindu majority.


Find out about the anti-colonial movement in Indo-China. Compare and contrast India’s national movement with the ways in which Indo-China became independent.

  1. The Indo-China region of modern-day Vietnam, Cambodia and Laos struggled with colonization from the Europeans just like India. Vietnam actually gained formal independence even before India.
  2. Like British, the French also were colonisers from 1858 to 1880. Vietnam was colonised by the French.
  3. Indo-China was a collective term for Laos, Vietnam and Cambodia together. From
    the beginning, French occupation and communist ideas from China were a major influence in Indo-China.
  4. As Vietnam is a surrounding area of China it followed the same governance system and cultures. Vietnam was also a part of the rich silk trade route that exchanged people, goods and ideas. After becoming a colony of the French this started to change.
  5. Nationalism in Vietnam emerged through the efforts of different section of society to fight against the French and all they represented.
  6. The colonisation of Vietnam had brought the people of the country into conflict with French in all areas of life.
  7. The French also built a system that tried to reshape the culture of the Vietnamese. This destroyed local cultures, traditions and religions.
  8. The people of Vietnam resented all these forms of domination.

AP 10th Class Social History 2nd Lesson InText Questions and Answers Nationalism in India

Page No. 58


Read the text carefully. What did Mahatma Gandhi mean when he said satyagraha is active resistance ?

  1. Active resistance requires a lot of soul force activity.
  2. Active resistence involves very great sacrifices to be made, and it can be done only by strong willed persons.
  3. Active resistance need resistance to oppression and it had to be done without using any force.
  4. So, Satyagraha is active resistance.

Page No. 64


Question 1.
The year is 1921. You are a student in a government-controlled school. Design a poster urging school students to answer Gandhiji’s call to join the Non-Cooperation Movement.
Join the Non-Cooperation Movement send away the British Back
Dear friends.
Our motherland is suffering economically and socially at the hands of the Britishers. The British rule was established in India with our cooperation only. This is the time we have to send them back. They are exploiting us. Join hands and participate in Non-Cooperation movement. Stop cooperation with the British. Let us join hands with Bapu. The success of the Non-Cooperation Movement depends on you.

Page No. 66


If you were a peasant in Uttar Pradesh in 1920, how would you have responded to Gandhiji’s call for Swaraj ? Give reasons for your response.
I would have supported Gandhiji’s call for Swaraj.

  1. My landlords asking to work in their farms without any payment.
  2. By that time we are demanding for abolition of begar and reduction of revenue.
  3. When the Non-Cooperation Movement began the following year our struggle was integrated into that.
  4. We all hoped that our problems will be cleared by that time.
    So, we supported Gandhiji’s call for Swaraj.

Page No. 68


Question 1.
Find out about other participants in the National Movement who were captured and put to death by the British. Can you think of a similar example from the national movement in Indo-China (Chapter 2)?
Bhagat Singh, Sukhdev, Rajguru, Chandrashekar Azad, Khudiram Bose and Madan Lai Dhingra were the participants in the National Movement who were captured and put to death by the British. A similar example from the nationalist movement in Indo¬China would be the execution of the Vietnamese Communist leader Ho Chi Minh by the French in 1940 during the nationalist struggle in Vietnam.

Page No. 82


Question 1.
Why did various classes and groups of Indians participate in the Civil Disobedience Movement?
Various classes and different social groups of Indian participated in the Civil Disobedience Movement on account of their own needs, aspirations and limited understanding.

  1. In rural areas, rich farmers and peasant communities such as Patidars (in Gujarat) and Jats (in Uttar Pradesh) were hardly hit by the trade depression and they participated in the Civil Disobedience Movement.
  2. The busings classess participated in the movement to oppose the colonial policies that restricted business activities.
  3. Some prominent industrialists supported the movement financially and boycotted the trading of foreign goods.
  4. Peasants participated in this movement expecting land will be given and would not have to pay rents or do begar.
  5. Working classes participated expecting higher wages and excellent working conditions.
  6. Women participated in this movement feeling that it is their responsibility to participate in the movement.

Page No. 86


Read the Source D carefully. Do you agree with Iqbal’s idea of communalism ? Can you define communalism in a different way?

In 1930, Sir Muhammad Iqbal, as president of the Muslim League, reiterated the importance of separate electorates for the Muslims as an important safeguard for their minority political interests. His statement is supposed to have provided the intellectual justification for the Pakistan demand that came up in subsequent years. This is what he said:

‘l have no hesitation in declaring that if the principle that the Indian Muslim is entitled to hill and free development on the lines of his own culture and tradition in his own Indian home-lands is recognised as the basis of a permanent communal settlement, he will be ready to stake his all for the freedom of India. The principle that each group is entitled to free development on its own lines is not inspired by any feeling of narrow communalism …A community which is inspired by feelings of ill-will towards other communities is low and ignoble. I entertain the highest respect for the customs, laws, religions and social institutions of other communities.

Nay, it is my duty according to the teachings of the Quran, even to defend their places of worship, if need be. Yet I love the communal group which is the source of life and behaviour and which has formed me what I am by giving me its religion, its literature, its thought, its culture and thereby its whole past as a living operative factor in my present consciousness

‘Communalism in its higher aspect, then, is indispensable to the formation of a harmonious whole in a country like India. The units of Indian society are not territorial as in European countries … The principle of European democracy cannot be applied to India without recognising the fact of communal groups. The Muslim demand for the creation of a Muslim India within India is, therefore, perfectly justified… ‘

‘The Hindu thinks that separate electorates are contrary to the spirit of true nationalism, because he understands the word “nation” to mean a kind of universal amalgamation in which no communal entity ought to retain its private individuality.
Such a state of things, however, does not exist. India is a land of racial and religious variety. Add to this the general economic inferiority of the Muslims, thteir enormous debt, especially in the Punjab, and their insufficient majorities in some of the provinces, as at present constituted and you will begin to see clearly the meaning of our anxiety to retain separate electorates.

I do not agree with Iqbal’s idea of communalism.

  1. Iqbal believed that communalism is the basis of one’s thinking and behaviour.
  2. Iqbal felt that religions give persons a common culture and literature.
  3. Iqbal believed in the concept that Hindus and Muslims should exist as separate entities in India. This encouraged separatism and led to the partition of the country.
  4. In these days we understand communalism having a negative cannotation. So, I do not agree with Iqbal’s idea of communalism.

Page No. 92


Question 1.
Look at Figs. 12 and 14. Do you think these images will appeal to all castes and communities? Explain your views briefly.
AP 10th Class Social History 2nd Lesson Questions and Answers Nationalism in India Img 2
No, I don’t think that these images would appeal to all castes and communities of India.

  1. Because these images of Bharat Mata show her as a Hindu Godess.
  2. So, this gives a religions biasness to the image. The image should reflect the nationalist idea of unity of all castes and communities.

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