AP 10th Class Social History 1st Lesson Questions and Answers The Rise of Nationalism in Europe

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The Rise of Nationalism in Europe Questions and Answers AP 10th Class Social History 1st Lesson

Question 1.
Write a note on :
A) Guiseppe Mazzini
B) Count camill de Cavour
C) The Greek war of independence
D) Frankfurt parliament
E) The role of women in nationalist struggle.
A) Giuseppe Mazzini:

  1. Mazzini was an Italian revolutionary
  2. Mazzini was born in 1807.
  3. He played a significant role in promoting the idea of a unified Italian state.
  4. Mazzini was a member of the Secret Society of the Carbonari. In 1831, at the age of 24, he was sent into exile for attempting a revolution in Liguria.
  5. Mazzini believed that God has intended the nations to be the natural units of mankind. So he did not want Italy to be a patchwork of small states and kingdoms.
  6. He also founded underground societies named ‘Young Italy’ in Marseilles and ‘Young Europe’ in Berne whose members were like-minded young men from Poland, France, Italy and the Germany states.
  7. Young Italy was a Secret Society and it was formed to promote Italian unification.
  8. Mazzini was a fervent advocate of republicanism and envisioned a united, free and independent Italy.
  9. Mazzini’s relentless opposition to monarchy and his vision of democratic republics frightened the ‘conservatives’.

B) Count Camilio de Cavour :

  1. Cavour was born in August 1810. He was a political leader and an Italian statesman and he was the founder of the original Italian Liberal Party.
  2. When the revolutionary uprisings of 1831 and 1848 failed to unite Italy, the responsibility of unifying Italy fell upon this Italian state.
  3. King Victor Emmanuel II was it’s ruler and Cavour was the Chief Minister.
  4. Unlike Mazzini or Garibaldi he was neither a revolutionary nor a democrat but an astute diplomat.
  5. With a diplomatic alliance with France, Sardinia – Piedmont he succeeded in defeating Austrian forces in 1859 and thereby uniting the northern states of Lombardy, Parma, Modena and Tuscany.
  6. The central states except Rome were annexed by Cavour with the help of armed volunteers under Giuseppe Garibaldi.
  7. Cavour is remembered as probably the most significant figure in the Italian Risorgimento or resurgence.

C) The Greek War of Independence :

  1. Greece was a part of the Ottoman Empire since 15th century.
  2. The struggle for independence amongst the Greeks began in 1821.
  3. Nationalists in Greece got support from other Greeks living in exile and also from many Western Europeans sharing sympathies for ancient Greek Culture.
  4. Poets and artists lauded Greece as the cradle of European civilisation and mobilised public opinion to support it’s struggle against a Muslim Empire.
  5. The English poet Lord Byron organised funds and later on went to fight in the war, where he died of fever in 1824.
  6. Finally, the Treaty of Constantinople of 1832 recognised Greece as an independent nation.
  7. It needs to be noted that culture played an important role in creating the idea of the nation. Art, poetry, stories and music helped express and shape Greek nationalist feelings.

D) Frankfurt Parliament:

  1. It is the name of the German National Assembly founded during the Revolution of 1848. It tried to unite Germany in a democratic way.
  2. It was an all-German National Assembly formed by the middle-class professionals, businessmen and prosperous artisans belonging to the different German regions.
  3. This Assembly was convened on 18th May, 1848 in the Church of St.Paul, in the city o(Frankfurt. This assembly drafted a constitution for the German nation to be headed by a monarchy subject to a parliament.
  4. The king of Prussia – Friedrich Wilhelm IV – rejected the Frankfurt Parliament deputies offer of the crown. He joined other monarchs to oppose the elected assembly.
  5. The Frankfurt Parliament failed to achieve its purpose.
  6. As it was dominated by the middle classes who resisted the demands of workers and artisans and consequently lost their support.
  7. Troops were called in and the assembly was forced to disband.

E) The role of women in nationalist struggles.

  1. A large number of women participated actively in nationalist struggles over the years.
    Example: In France, Germany and Italy.
  2. Women formed their own political associations, founded newspapers and taken part in political meetings and demonstrations. Despite this they were denied suffrage during the election of the Assembly.
  3. Universal Adult male suffrage was adopted but women were denied suffrage rights during the elections to the all German National Assembly.
  4. When the Frankfurt Parliament was convened, they were merely admitted as observers in the gallery.
  5. Woman had ‘liberty’ to participate in nationalist struggles but not ‘equality’. But this did not diminish their contribution to the national struggle.

AP 10th Class Social History 1st Lesson Questions and Answers The Rise of Nationalism in Europe

Question 2.
What steps did the French revolutionaries take to create a sense of collective identity among the French people?
A. The French revolutionaries took many important steps to create a sense of collective identity among the French people. They are :

  1. Ideas of la patrie (the fatherland) and le citoyen (the citizen) were introduced to emphasize the notion of a united community enjoying equal rights under a constitution.
  2. A new French flag, a tricolor replaced the royal standard.
  3. The Estates General was renamed the National Assembly and was elected by a group of active citizens.
  4. New hymns, oaths and martyrs commemorated in the name of the nation.
  5. A central administrative system made uniform laws for the entire nation.
  6. Internal custom duties and dues were abolished and a uniform system of weights and measures was adopted.
  7. Regional dialects were discouraged and French, spoken in Paris, was adopted as the common language of the Nation.

Question 3.
Who were Marianne and Germania? What was the importance of the way in which they were pbrtrayed ?
Mirianne and Germania were the female allegories prepared by artists in the 19th century in France and Germany respectively to represent the abstract idea of the nation in concrete form. This was a way to personify a nation.
Mirianne :

  1. In France, she was christened Marianne, a popular Christian name, which underlined the idea of a people’s nation.
  2. Her characteristics were drawn from those of Liberty and the Republic – the red caj>j the tricolour, the cockade.
  3. Statues of Mirianne were erected in Public places to remind the public of the national symbol of unity and to persuade them to identify with it.
  4. Mirianne images were marked on coins and stamps.

Germania :

  1. Germania was an allegory of the German nation.
  2. Germania was prepared by Philip Veit, an artist in 1848.
  3. She was represented standing against a background where beams of sunlight shine through the national tricolour flag, wearing a crown of oak leaves and holding an unsheathed sword in her hand.
  4. The underlying idea was to symbolise the Germans as heroic.

Question 4.
Briefly trace the process of German unification.
The process of German unification :

  1. Nationalist feelings were widespread among middle class Germans, who in 1848 tried to unite the different regions of the German confederation into a nation governed by an elected parliament.
  2. This liberal mitiative to nation building was, however, repressed by the combined forces of the monarchy and the military, supported by the large landowners of Prussia.
  3. From then on, Prussia took on the leadership of the movement for national unification.
  4. It’s Chief Minister, Otto von Bismarck, Was the architect of this process carried out with the help of the Prussian army and bureaucracy.
  5. Three wars over seven years – with Austria, Denmark and France – ended in Prussian victory and completed the process of unification
  6. In January 1871, the Prussian king, William I was proclaimed German Emperor in a ceremony held at Versailles.

Question 5.
What changes did Napoleon introduce to make the administrative system more efficient in the territories ruled by him?

  1. Napolean framed the Civil Code of 1804 which was called the Napoleonic code. This code abolisheu all privileges based on birth and attempted to ensure equality and right to property.
  2. Napoleaiy made administrative divisions more simple. He put an end to the feudal system and freed the peasants from the feudal system. The peasants did not have to pay manorial dues as well.
  3. Napolean removed the guild systems.
  4. Napolean also improved transports and communication systems.
  5. These new reforms were appreciated by peasants, workers, businessmen, traders and common people.
  6. Uniform laws were established for all, be it a businessman or a small scale producer of goods.
  7. Uniform laws system of weights and measured and common national currency were introduced. This facilitated the movement of goods and capital from one region to another.


Question 1.
Explain what is meant by the 1848 revolution of the liberals. What were the political, social and economic ideas supported by the liberals?

  1. The 1848 revolution of the liberals mean the revolution led by the educated middle classes of Europe.
  2. Events of February 1848, in France brought about the abdication of the monarchy and a republic based on universal male franchise was formed.
  3. In Europe, the educated middle class made up of industrialists, businessmen and professionals played a lead role in nationalist movement.
  4. They were imbibed by liberal ideas and socially, demanded freedom of individuals, freedom of press and equality of all before law.
  5. Politically, liberals demanded constitutionalism with national unification, a nation-state with a written constitution and parliamentary administration.
  6. Socially, liberals demanded to free the society from its class-based partialities and birthrights. They also demanded to abolish bonded labour.
  7. Economically, liberals demanded freedom of markets and the right to property. They also demanded the abolition of state-imposed restrictions on the movements of goods and capital.

2. Choose three examples to show the contribution of culture to the growth of nationalism in Europe.
Culture played a significant role in the growth of Nationalism in Europe during the 19th century. Some of the examples that highlight the contribution of culture towards the growth of Nationalism are :
i) Romanticism:

  1. Romanticism was a cultural movement that emerged in Europe in the late 18th century and lasted until the mid 19th century.
  2. It focused on the individual emotions and the glorification of the nation’s past.
  3. Romanticism encouraged the idea of national identity and pride in one’s heritage and cultufe.
  4. Romantic artists and writers portrayed their nations’ history, legends and traditions in their works, creating a sense of national unity and shared identity.
  5. Romanticism also promoted the use of national languages and the preservation of – folk culture and traditions.


  1. Language played a crucial role in the growth of Nationalism by providing a common means of communication and facilitating the spread of ideas and cultue.
  2. Nationalists promoted the use of their national language as the official language of their country by replacing the language of the ruling elite.
  3. The standardisation of national languages helped to create of sense of unity and identity among people of the same nation.
  4. Language was also used to promote national literature, music and art, further strengthening the sense of national pride.

Folk Culture :

  1. Folk culture refers to the traditional beliefs, customs and practices of a particular community or region.
  2. Nationalists saw folk culture as an essential element of their nation’s identity and worked to preserve and promote it.
  3. Folk culture provided a sense of continuity and tradition that connected people to their nation’s past.
  4. Nationalists used the folk culture’tb’create a sense of national pride and identity by promoting traditional music, dance and dress.
  5. Folk culture also helped to create a sense of community and belonging among people of the same nation, further strengthening the idea of Nationalism.

So we can say that the culture played an important role in the growth of Nationalism in Europe during the 19th century. Romanticism, language and folk culture were some of the ways in which culture contributed to the development of Nationalism by promoting national identity, unity and pride.

AP 10th Class Social History 1st Lesson Questions and Answers The Rise of Nationalism in Europe

Question 3.
Through a focus on any two countries, explain how nations developed over the nineteenth century.
A. I) Italy :

  1. Italy became a nation because of efforts of Cavour.
  2. Cavour made strategic alliances with France to defeat the Austrian forces.
  3. After several wars, the unification of Italy could become a possibility and it emerged as a nation state.
  4. The regions annexed by Giuseppe Garibaldi and his Red Shirts joined with the northern regions to form a united Italy. The Italian nation was proclaimed in 1861. The papal states joined in 1870.

II) Germany:

  1. In 1848 an attempt was made to unite different regions of the German confederation into a nation-state governed by an elected parliament.
  2. But this liberal initiative was repressed by the combined forces of the monarchy and the military who were supported by the large land-owners of Prussia.
  3. Prussian Chief Minister Otto von Bismarck was the architect of this process with the help of the Prussian army and bureaucracy.
  4. Three wars over seven years with Austria, Denmark and France ended in Prussian victory and completed the process of unification.
  5. In 1871 January, the Prussian king, William I proclaimed as the German Emperor in a ceremony held at Versailles.

Question 4.
How was the history of nationalism in Britain unlike the rest of Europe ?
The history of nationalism in Britain differ from the rest of Europe.

  1. In Britain, the formation of the nation-state was not the result of a sudden upheaval or revolution.
  2. Before the 18th century there was no Britain nation. The Primary identities of the people who inhabited the British Isles were ethnic ones such as English, Welsh, Scot or Irish.
  3. These ethenic groups had their own cultural and political traditionals, but the English groups extended it’s influence over others by steadily growing up in power and wealth.
  4. In 1688, the English Parliament seized power from the monarchy and became the instrument through which a nation-state, with England at it’s centre came to be forged.
  5. The Act of Union (1707) between England and Scotland resulted in the formation of the ’United Kingdom of Great Britain’.
  6. But, the Irish Catholics were against a union with England. The English helped the p’rotestants of Ireland to establish their dominance over a largely Catholic Country. Ireland was forcibly incorporated into the United Kingdom in 1801.
  7. Scotland and Ireland survived only as subordinate partners in the British nation.
  8. Thus, it was through parliamentary action and not by means of revolution or war that United Kingdom was forged into a strong nationalist state.

Question 5.
Why did nationalist tensions emerge in the Balkans?

  1. The Balkans was a region of geographical and ethnic variations comprising of modern day Romania, Bulgaria, Albania, Greece, Macedonia, Croatia, Bosnia – Herzegovina Slovenia, Serbia and Montenegro. The inhabitants were called Slavs.
  2. The spread of romantic nationalism lead to its disintegration. One by one, it’s European subject nationalities broke away.
  3. Different Slavic nationalities struggled to define their identity and Balkan region became a region of intense conflict over expansion of territory.
  4. By that time, the great European Powers – Russia, Germany, England and Austro – Hungary were keen on taking the control of the Balkan region, since it was important from trade point of view.
  5. This led to series of wars in the region and finally to the First World War.


Question 1.
Find out more about nationalist symbols in countries outside Europe. For one or two countries, collect examples of pictures, posters or music that are symbols of nationalism. How are these different from European examples ?
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Country Flag Bird Flower Anthem
India 3 strips of Orange, White and Green colour with Chakra in the middle strip. (white) Peacock The Lotus Jana Gana Mana by Rabindranath Tagore.
China Red flag with one big and five small yellow colour stars. Chinese
Peony The mach of volunteer
Russia horizontal strips of white, blue and red colour. Double
(Bice phallic)
(sunflower variety)
Hymn of Russian Federation by sergey Mikhalkov
USA 50 stars on blue colour background, surrounded by red and white strips. Eagle The Rose The star spangled banner by Francis Scott Key

AP 10th Class Social History 1st Lesson InText Questions and Answers The Rise of Nationalism in Europe

Page No. 2


Question 1.
In what way do you think this print (Fig. 1) depicts a utopian vision?
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1) ‘Utopian vision’ means that it is depicting something idealistic.
2) The French Artist Frederic Sorrieu visualised a dream of a world made of nations.
(Actually all the nations which Sorrieu mentioned did not exist as nations at the time that these prints were made.)
3) He showed the German people with a common flag, although actually, there were a number of different states at that time.
4) So, it is an idealistic or utopian vision.

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Question 2.
Summarise the attributes of a nation, as Renan understands them. Why, in his view, are nations important ?
Renan was a French philosopher and attributes of a nation are according to him as follows:

  1. Nations are not formed by a common language, race, religon or territory.
  2. To form a nation, social, capital, common glories and deeds of the past and common will are necessary.
  3. Nation is a large scale solidarity.
  4. Inhabitants of a nation have the right to be consulted in reference of large scale solidarity.
  5. The existence of a nation is not only a good thing but also a necessity.
  6. A nation has never any real interest in annexing or holding on to a country against it’s will.

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Question 3.
Describe the political ends that list hopes to achieve through economic measures.
A customs union known as zollvenin was formed at the initiative of Prussia and joined by most of the German states. This union removed interned impediments and summed up 32 currencies into two. Besides this, it is the aim of the union is to bind the Germans economically into a nation materially through its protection of interests externally and stimulating its internal productivity. It must be awakened and national sentiments should be raised through a fusion of individual and state interests.

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Question 4.
Plot on a map of Europe the changes drawn up by the Vienna Congress.
The Vienna Congress in 1815 changed the boundaries of Europe after the Napoleonic era. The boundaries were changed to make a strong France. Many countries opposed this, but it remapped with Russia taking most parts of the Napoleonic under its control.
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AP 10th Class Social History 1st Lesson Questions and Answers The Rise of Nationalism in Europe

Page No. 18


Question 5.
What is the caricaturist trying to depict?

  1. This caricature aims to depict the true characteristics of the conservative monarchies of the 19th century Europe.
  2. The ideals of liberalism and individual freedom did not flourish then.
  3. these regimes were autocratic and they were not ready to tolerate criticism and dissent.
  4. In this caricature, the club involved thinkers are sitting in a club but they do not have the power to express their thoughts as reflected by the cloth tied on their mouths.
  5. This is the most effective way to project that the people did not have freedom of speech or freedom of thought in those times.

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Question 6.
Discuss the importance of language and popular traditions in the creation of national identity.

  1. Language play an important role in the creation of national identity.
  2. Grim brothers wrote ‘Fairy Tales’. They became popular among children and adults. They brought these folktales to the public through their creations in German language which encouraged the feelings of the people to achieve freedom of the press.
  3. Grim brothers did a lot of work to develop German language and creation of German Nationality in reference to identity.
  4. They also published a 33 volume dictionary of German language.
  5. Poems, music, stories, folk songs, folk dances create the idea of a nation. Besides it, they help to express and form national feelings through the creation of shared heritage and common culture.
  6. Collective identity among the French people was created by the French revolutionaries by discouraging local dialects and encouraging French.
  7. In Poland use of vernacular language became helpful in circulating modern nationalist feelings among the large illiterate population.
  8. Polish language was forced out and the Russian language was imposed after Russia occupied Poland.
  9. Polish language came in use for church gathering and preaching. Later Polish came to be seen as a symbol of the struggle against Russian domination.

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Question 7.
Describe the cause of the Silesian weavers’ uprising. Comment on the viewpoint of the journalist.

  1. The cause of the uprising was the exploitation of the weavers by the contractors.
  2. They reduced the payments to the weavers for the goods they ordered.
  3. Already there was widespread unemployment. They led a life of extreme misery.
  4. A contractor tried to get shelter in a neighbouring village when he was attacked. But he failed in that.
  5. He sought the help of Army. In the exchange that followed eleven weavers were shot.
  6. Weavers’ uprising depict the condition of people in the villages.
  7. There was extreme poverty and unemployment. People were exploited by rich people.
  8. Army helped the rich people in crushing such uprisings or opposition. The government did not care for the welfare of the poor.
  9. On the other hand, the journalist did not understand the root cause of the uprising. He did not understand the poverty of weavers.

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Question 8.
Imagine you are a weaver who saw the events as they unfolded. Write a report on what you saw.

  1. A large crowd of weavers came out of their homes and marched in pairs up to the mansion of their contractor, demanding higher wages.
  2. When the weavers demanded higher wages, the contractor beaten and scolded the weavers.
  3. Some of the enraged weavers forced their way into the house of the contractor, smashed window-panes, and furniture etc.
  4. Another group broke into the storehouse and plundered it of supplies cloth, which they tore to shreds.
  5. The contractor fled with his family. Next day he returned with the army. In the revenge that followed, eleven weavers were shot dead.

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Question 9.
Compare the positions on the question of women’s rights voiced by the three writers cited above. What do they reveal about liberal ideology ?
1) According to Carl Welcker woman is weaker than man and her sphere is the home Where she keeps children and perform household duties a such as cooking, washing and cleaning etc.

2) According to Welcker due the differences, equality between the sexes would only endanger harmony and destroy the dignity of the family.

3) The second writer Louise Otto Peters also expressed similar opinions.

4) The third writer says that it is ridiculous and unreasonable to deny women, the political rights when they already enjoy the rights to property.

5) He says that is clearly an injustice to women that although they perform functions and assumes responsibilities, they are denied rights which are given to men.

6) Although liberal idealogy promises equal rights and freedom to all, but here even the liberal political thinkers are not in favour of granting the same to women.

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Question 10.
Describe the caricature. How does it represent the relationship between Bismarck and the elected deputies of Parliament ? What interpretation of democratic processes is the artist trying to convey?
AP 10th Class Social History 1st Lesson Questions and Answers The Rise of Nationalism in Europe IMG 4

  1. Bismarck is shown with the hunter in his hand in the German Parliament. The deputies who were elected are-afraid of him and so are hiding under their tables.
  2. The caricature depicts that Bismarck ruled on the minds of the members of German Parliament. He controlled his subjects.
  3. Here the artist comically explains the functioning of the democratic system in which the existence of democracy was in fact a farce.
  4. The artist tried to convey that the democratic process in Germany was very shallow and the roots of constitutionalism were poor.

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Question 11.
Look at Fig. 14(a). Do you think that the people living in any of these regions thought of themselves as Italians ?
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1) Yes, the people living in the kingdom of two Sicilies Venetia and Lombardy, thought of themselves as Italians.
b) Examine Fig 14(b). Which was the first region to become a part of Unified Italy ? Which was the last region to join ? In which year did the largest number of states join?
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b) 1) The first region to become a part of unified Italy in 1858 was Venetia region.
2) The last region to join unified Italy was the kingdom of both Sicilies.
3) In the year 1858 – 60, the largest number of states joined Italy.

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Question 12.
The artist has portrayed Garibaldi as holding on to the base of the boot, so that the King of Sardinia-Piedmont can enter it from the top. Look at the map of Italy once more. What statement is this caricature making?
AP 10th Class Social History 1st Lesson Questions and Answers The Rise of Nationalism in Europe IMG 7

  1. According to this caricature, the shoes depict the kingdom of two Sicilies over which Garibaldi achieved victory.
  2. Later he presented these shoes to the king of Sardinia – Piedmont, who was proclaimed as the king of united Italy.
  3. The Figure 14(a) depicts the role of Garibaldi in the unification of Italy.

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AP 10th Class Social History 1st Lesson Questions and Answers The Rise of Nationalism in Europe

Question 13.
With the help of the chart in Box 3, identify the attributes of Veit’s Germania and interpret the symbolic meaning of the painting. In an earlier allegorical rendering of 1836, Veit had portrayed the Kaiser’s crown at the place where he has now locat¬ed the broken chain. Explain the significance of this change.

Attribute Significance
Broken chains Being freed
Breastplate with eagle Symbol of the German empire – strength
Crown of oak leaves Heroism
Sword Readiness to fight
Olive branch around the sword Willingness to make peace
Black, red and gold tricolour Flag of the liberal-nationalists in 1848, banned by the Dukes of the German states
Rays of the rising sun Beginning of a new era

1) The painting shows the rising of German nation.
2) It is the beginning of a new era in which liberal nationalist ideology would be predominant.
3) The new German nation is very powerful and always ready to make a war or peace with it’s neighbouring states.
4) It is completely free from the control of autocracy.
5) Germania wears a crown of oak leaves, which stands for heroism.
6) The replacement of the Kaiser’s crown with the broken chain signifies that the German nation is now free from autocratic monarchial rule.

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Question 14.
Describe what you see in Fig. What historical events could Hiibner be referring to in this allegorical vision of the nation ?
Julius Hubner painted this picture of Germania, allegory of the German – nation, in 1850, 2 years after the national assembly at Frankfurt was rejected by the monarchs. In the foreground of the picture, there are symbols of absolutism and Germania lies before it. This shows that the united hope if German becoming a nation is now shrivelled. And the entire nation falls down before the monarchy.
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Thus, the Frankfurt Parliament being forced to disband, by the monarchs, was the event Hubner is referring to in his painting.

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Question 15.
Look once more at Fig. Imagine you were a citizen of Frankfurt in March 1848 and were present during the proceedings of the parliament. How would you (a) as a man seated in the hall of deputies, and (b) as a woman observing from the galleries, relate to the banner of Germania hanging from the ceiling?
AP 10th Class Social History 1st Lesson Questions and Answers The Rise of Nationalism in Europe IMG 9

  1. If I was seated in the hall of deputies, I would feel that portrait or banner of Germania was real.
  2. If I had been observing from the galleries as a woman, I would have felt that this picture partially represented the liberal-nationalist ideology.

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