AP 10th Class Social Economics 1st Lesson Questions and Answers Development

Access to the AP 10th Class Social Study Material Economics 1st Lesson Development Questions and Answers are aligned with the curriculum standards.

Development Questions and Answers AP 10th Class Social Economics 1st Lesson

Question 1.
Development of a country can generally be determined by
(i) its per capita income
(ii) its average literacy level
(iii) health status of its people
(iv) all the above
(iv) all the above

Question 2.
Which of the following neighbouring countries has better performance in terms of human development than India ?
(i) Bangladesh
(ii) Sri Lanka
(iii) Nepal
(iv) Pakistan
(ii) Sri Lanka

Question 3.
Assume there are four families in a country. The average per capita income of these families is Rs. 5000. If the income of three families is Rs. 4000, Rs. 7000 and Rs. 3000 respectively, what is the income of the fourth family ?
(i) Rs. 7500
(ii) Rs. 3000
(iii) Rs. 2000
(iv) Rs. 6000
(iv) Rs. 6000
(4000+7000+3000+x)÷4 = 5000
14000+x = 5000 x 4
x = 20000 – 14000
x = 6000

AP 10th Class Social Economics 1st Lesson Questions and Answers Development

Question 4.
What is the main criterion used by the World Bank in classifying different countries? What are the limitations of this criterion, if any?
1) The main criterion used by the World Bank in classifying different countries is their income level or per capita income.
2) This criterion measures the average income of individuals in a country and is often used as an indicator of a country’s level of development.
3) The World Bank classifies countries into different income groups based on their per capita income, such as low-income, lower-middle-income, upper-middle-income, and high-income countries.

1) Income does not capture other important aspects of development, such as access to education, healthcare, and quality of life.
2) Different countries may have different cost of living levels, so comparing income levels directly may not provide an accurate picture of living standards.
3) Cultural and social factors, as well as political stability, may also influence a country’s development and cannot be captured by income complex.

Question 5.
In what respects is the criterion used by the UNDP for measuring development different from the one used by the World Bank?
1) The criterion used by the UNDP for measuring development includes indicators such as educational levels, health status, and per capita income.
2) The World Bank primarily focuses on per capita income as a measure of development.
3) The UNDP considers a broader range of factors related to human well-being and quality of life, while the World Bank’s criterion is more focused on economic factors.
4) The UNDP’s approach recognizes that development goes beyond income and emphasises the importance of considering various dimensions of human development.

Question 6.
Why do we use averages? Are there any limitations to their use? Illustrate with your own examples related to development.
We use averages to summarise and compare data in a simple and understandable way. However, there are limitations to their use:

  • Averages can hide disparities and inequalities within a population.
  • For example, a country with a high average income may still have a large percentage of its population living in poverty.
  • Averages may not accurately represent the distribution of resources or opportunities.
  • For instance, a region with a high average literacy rate may still have pockets of illiteracy.
  • Averages can be influenced by outliers or extreme values.
  • This can skew the interpretation of data.
  • Illustration related to development:
  • In the case of per capita income, averaging alone may not provide a complete picture of development.

For example, Country A and Country B may have the same average income, but if the income distribution in Country A is more equitable and provides a better standard of living for the majority of its population, it could be considered more developed despite the same average income.

Question 7.
Kerala, with lower per capita income has a better human development ranking than Haryana. Hence, per capita income is not a useful criterion at all and should not he used to compare states. Do you agree? Discuss.

  • Kerala has a lower per capita income compared to Haryana but has a better human development ranking.
  • Per capita income alone may not be a useful criterion to compare states in terms of development.
  • Human development is a multidimensional concept that includes factors like health, education, and standard of living, in addition to income.
  • Income may not reflect the overall well-being and quality of life of the population.
  • Development should be measured using a combination of indicators that capture various aspects of human well-being.
  • It is important to consider factors like access to healthcare, education, and social services when comparing states’ development.
  • The focus should be on achieving holistic development rather than solely relying on per capita income as a measure of progress.

Question 8.
Find out the present sources of energy that are used by the people in India. What could be the other possibilities fifty years from now?

  • Current energy sources in India: firewood, coal, petroleum, crude oil, and natural gas.
  • Future possibilities (50 years from now): solar energy and wind energy.
  • Reason for considering new sources: To prevent depletion of natural resources for future generations.

Question 9.
Why is the issue of sustainability important for development?
The issue of sustainability is important for development because :
1) Environmental degradation and depletion of resources are threatening the future of our planet.

2) Unsustainable development practices can have negative consequences on the health and well-being of people.

3) Sustainable development seeks to ensure that present development does not compromise the ability of future generations to meet their needs.

4) Sustainable development is about finding a balance between economic growth, social progress, and environmental protection.

5) It is important to consider the long-term impacts of development and promote practices that minimise harm to the environment and promote the well-being of all individuals.

6) Sustainability is crucial in order to create a better future for all and ensure that resources are used wisely and equitably.

7) Sustainable development is a collaborative effort that requires the involvement of scientists, economists, philosophers, and social scientists.

Question 10.
The Earth has enough resources to meet the needs of all but not enough to satisfy the greed of even one person”. How is this statement relevant to the discussion of development? Discuss.
1) The statement highlights the conflict between meeting basic needs and excessive consumption or greed.

2) It suggests that the focus of development should be on meeting the needs of all individuals, rather than satisfying the desires of a few.

3) It raises questions about the fairness and justice of development goals and emphasizes the importance of considering the well-being of the larger population.

4) The statement is relevant to the discussion of development as it challenges the idea of unlimited growth and resource consumption.

5) It prompts us to consider sustainable development practices that prioritize environmental conservation and social equity.

AP 10th Class Social Economics 1st Lesson Questions and Answers Development

Question 11.
List a few examples of environmental degradation that you may have observed around you.

  • Air pollution from vehicle emissions.
  • Deforestation and habitat loss due to urbanisation.
  • Water pollution from industrial waste.
  • Soil erosion and degradation from improper farming practices.
  • Noise pollution from construction and industrial’activities.
  • Plastic pollution in rivers and oceans.
  • Loss of biodiversity due to habitat destruction and pollution.
  • Climate change and global warming from greenhouse gas emissions.
  • Water scarcity and depletion of groundwater resources.
  • Land degradation and desertification.

Question 12.
For each of the items given in below table (1.6) find out which country is at the top and which is at the bottom?

Country Gross National Income (GNI) per capita (2011 PPP$) Life Expectancy at birth Mean Years of Schooling of people aged 25 and above 2017 HDI Rank in the world (2018)
Sri Lanka 12,707 77 10.6 73
India 6,681 69.7 6.5 130
Myanmar 4,961 67.1 5.0 148
Pakistan 5,005 67.3 5.2 154
Nepaal 3,457 70.8 5.0 143
Bangladesh 4,976 72.6 6.2 134


  • Sri Lanka has the highest Gross National Income (GNI) per capita at $12,707.
  • Nepal has the lowest GNI per capita at $3457.
  • Sri Lanka has the highest life expectancy at birth at 77  years.
  • Myanmar has the lowest life expectancy at birth at 67.1 years.
  • Sri Lanka has the highest mean years of schooling of people aged 25 and above at 10.6 years.
  • Myanmar and Nepal has the lowest mean years of schooling of people aged 25 and above at 5.0 years.
  • Sri Lanka has the highest Human Development Index (HDI) rank in the world at 73.
  • Pakistan has the lowest HDI rank in the world at 154.

Question 13.
The following table shows the proportion of adults (aged 15-49 years) whose BMI is below normal (BMI < 18.5kg/m2) in India. It is based on a survey of various states for the year 2015 -16. Look at the table and answer the following questions.

State Male (%) Female (%)
Kerala 8.5 10
Karnataka 17 21
Madhya Pradesh 28 28
All States 20 23

(i) Compare the nutritional level of people in Kerala and Madhya Pradesh.
(ii) Can you guess why around one-fifth of people in the country are undernourished even though it is argued that there is enough food in the country ? Describe in your own words.
i) Comparison of nutritional level in Kerala and Madhya Pratesh:

  • The proportion of adults with BMI below normal in Kerala is 8.5% for males and 10% for females.
  • In Madhya Pradesh, the proportion is higher with 28% for both males and females.
  • This indicates that the nutritional level is better in Kerala compared to Madhya Pradesh.

ii) Reasons for undernourishment in India:

  • Despite arguments of enough food availability in the country, around one-fifth of people are undernourished.
  • Possible reasons could include:
  • Unequal distribution of food resources.
  • Lack of access to nutritious food due to poverty and inequitable economic development.
  • Inadequate social welfare programs and infrastructure for food security.
  • Poor agricultural practices and limited productivity.
  • Challenges in food storage and transportation leading to wastage.
  • Socio-cultural factors affecting dietary habits and nutritional awareness.


Question 1.
Invite three different speakers to talk to you about the development of your region. Ask them all the questions that come to your mind. Discuss these ideas in groups. Each group should prepare a wall chart, giving reasuns about ideas that you agree or do not agree with.
Here are some questions and ideas related to the development of Andhra Pradesh that you can discuss in groups. Here are three potential speakers and some questions we can ask them.

Speaker -1

Question 1.
What are the key economic challenges Andhra Pradesh faces in terms of development ?
Question 2.
How has the state’s economie-development progressed in recent years and what are the main drivers of this growth ?
Question 3.
What role does industrialization play in the development of Andhra Pradesh, and what industries show the most promise for future growth ?
Question 4.
How can the government stimulate economic growth while ensuring it benefits of all sections of society ?

Speaker – 2
Question 1.
What are the social issues affecting the development of Andhra Pradesh ?
Question 2.
How can Andhra Pradesh ensure that development initiatives are sustainable and do not harm the environment or marginated communities ?

Speaker – 3
Question 1.
What is the government’s vision for the development of Andhra Pradesh, and what policies have been implemented to achieve it ?
Question 2.
‘How does the government plan to balance economic development with social welfare programs ?

Ideas: Speaker -1
i) Key economic challenges: Andhra Pradesh faces problems like joblessness, unequal development, and needs to expand its industries beyond farming.
ii) Andhra Pradesh has grown recently, mainly because of IT, manufacturing, and better infrastructure.

Ideas : Speaker – 2
i) Andhra Pradesh has problems with schools, healthcare, fairness for women, and poverty.
ii) The state can help by building better schools and hospitals, giving help to people who need it, and making sure men and women have the same rights. Development should be done in ways that don’t hurt the environment.

Ideas : Speaker – 3
i) The government wants to make everything better, like the economy, people’s lives, and infrastructure.
ii) They plan to do this by spending money on farming, factories, and helping poor

AP 10th Class Social Economics 1st Lesson InText Questions and Answers Development


Page No. 12

Question 1.
If even the idea of what constitutes development can be varied and conflicting, then certainly there can be differences about ways of developing. If you know of any such controversy, try to find out arguments advanced by different people. You may do so by talking to different persons or you may find it from newspapers and television.
Controversy : Different views on the ways of development.

Arguments in favour of economic development:
1) Economic development is necessary for improving the standard of living of people.
2) Rapid economic growth can lead to the creation of jobs and reduction of poverty.
3) Economic development can help a country become more competitive in the global market.

Arguments against economic development:
1) Economic growth can lead to environmental degradation and depletion of natural resources.
2) The benefits of economic growth may not trickle down to the poor and marginalized sections of society.
3) Economic growth may lead to income inequality and social unrest.

Arguments in favour of social development:
1) Social development is necessary for ensuring equal opportunities and social justice.
2) Investing in social development can lead to better health, education, and living standards for the population.
3) Social development can help reduce poverty and inequality.

Arguments against social development:
1) Focusing on social development may divert resources away from economic development.
2) Social development can be difficult to measure and quantify, making it challenging to evaluate its impact.
3) Some argue that social development should be left to civil society organizations and not be the sole responsibility of governments.

Page No. 22

Question 2.
Study below table 1.5 carefully and fill in the blanks in the following paragraphs. For this, you may need to make calculations based on the table.
Educational Achievement of Rural Population of Uttar Pradesh

Category Male Female
Literacy rate for rural population 76% 54%
Literacy rate for rural children in age group 10-14 years 90% 87%
Percentage of rural children age 10-14 attending school 85% 82%

a) The literacy rate for all age groups, including young and old, is _____ for rural males and ______ for rural females. However, it is not just that these many adults could not attend school but that there are _____ who are currently not in school.

b) It is clear from the table that _____ % of rural girls and _____ % of rural boys are not attending school. Therefore, illiteracy among children in the age group 10-14 is as high as _____ % for rural females and _____ % for rural males.

c) This high level of illiteracy among _____ age groui5, even after more than 70 years of our independence, is most disturbing. In many other states also we are nowhere near realisation of the constitutional goal of free and compulsory education for all children up to the age of 14 which was expected to bp achieved by 1960.
a) The literacy rate for all age groups, including young and old, is 76% for rural males and 54% for rural females. However, it is not just that these many adults could not attend school but there are 16.5% who are currently not in school.

b) It is clear from the table that 18% of rural girls and 15% of rural boys are not attending school. Therefore, illiteracy among children in the age group 10-14 is as high as 13% for rural females and 10%. for rural males.

c) This high level of illiteracy among 16-14 age group, even after more than 68 years of our independence, is most disturbing. In many dther states also we are no where near realisation of the constitutional goal of free and compulsory education for all children up to the age of 14, which was expected to be achieved by 1960.

AP 10th Class Social Economics 1st Lesson Questions and Answers Development

Question 3.
One way to find out if we are properly nourished is to calculate what nutrition scientists call Body Mass Index (BMI). This is easy to calculate. Let each student in the class find out his or her weight and height. Take the weight of each student in kilograms (kg). Then, take the height by drawing up a scale on the wall and measuring accurately with the head straight. Convert the height recorded in centimeters into meters. Divide the weight in kg by the square of the height. The number you get is called BMI. Then, look at the BMI-for Age tables given on pages 90-91. A student’s BMI could be within the normal range or less than that (underweight) or more (obesity). For example, if a girl student is 14 years and 8 month old and the BMI is 15.2, then she is undernourished. Similarly, if the BMI of a boy aged 15 years and 6 months is 28, then he is overweight.
AP Board 10th Class Social Studies Solutions Chapter 1 Development Img 1
★ Discuss the life situation, food and exercise habits of students, in general, without body shaming anyone.
1) Body Mass Index (BMI) is a measure use nutrition scientists to determine if a person is properly nourished.

2) BMI is calculated by dividing a person’s weight in kilograms by the square of their height in meters.

3) BMI-for-Age tables can be used to determine if a person’s BMI falls within the normal range, or if they are underweight or overweight.

4) Students can calculate their own BMI using their weight and height measurements, but this should be done without body shaming anyone.

5) Instead of focusing on individual students’ BMI, discussions should focus on general life situations, food habits, and exercise habits of all students.

6) It is important to encourage healthy eating habits and regular exercise to promote overall health and well-being, rather than focusing solely on weight or BMI.


Page No. 10

Question 1.
Why do different persons have different notions of development ? Which of the following explanations is more important and why ?
a) Because people are different.
b) Because life situations of persons are different.
a) Different persons have different notions of development because people are inherently different in their perspectives, values, and priorities,
b) The life situations of individuals vary greatly, leading to different notions of development based on their unique circumstances and experiences. Both explanations are important, but the life situations of persons have a stronger influence on their notions of development as they are shaped by their personal experiences and the opportunities and challenges they face.

Question 2.
Do the following two statements mean the same ? Justify your answer.
a) People have different developmental goals.
b) People have conflicting developmental goals.
Statement (a) and statement (b) do not mean the same thing.
Statement (a) suggests that people may have different goals for their personal development, which may not necessarily conflict with the goals of others.
Statement (b), on the other hand, suggests that people may have goals that conflict with each other, leading to disagreements about the best way to achieve development. It is important to identify and address conflicting goals in order to promote inclusive and sustainable development that benefits everyone.

Question 3.
Give some examples where factors other than income are important aspects of our lives.
1) Relationships : Factors such as Communication, trust, and compatibility play a crucial role in our personal and romantic relationships.

2) Health : Wellness, access to healthcare, and lifestyle choices significantly impact our physical and mental well-being.

3) Education: The quality of education, opportunities for learning, and access to resources greatly influence our knowledge and skills.

4) Environment: The surroundings we live in, including access to clean air, water, and safe neighbourhoods, affect our overall quality of life.

5) Social connections: Having a supportive network of friends and an active social life contribute to our happiness and sense of belonging.

6) Personal values : Factors like ethics, beliefs, and principles shape our decisions and actions, and provide a sense of purpose in life.

7) Work-life balance : Achieving a healthy equilibrium between work and personal life is crucial for overall satisfaction’ and well-being.

8) Personal development: Continual growth, self-improvement, and pursuing hobbies or passions help enhance our personal fulfilment and happiness.

Question 4.
Explain some of the important ideas of the above section in your own words.

  • Development involves considering various aspects of progress and improvement, not just income.
  • The measurement of development through income alone has limitations, as other indicators of quality of life and environmental sustainability should also be considered.
  • Further research and exploration of different perspectives on development are encouraged.
  • It is important to consider a mix of goals for development, including income, security,’ equal treatment, freedom, and respect for others.

Page No. 12

Discuss the following situations.

Question 1.
Look at the adjacent picture. What should be the developmental goals for such an area?
AP Board 10th Class Social Studies Solutions Chapter 1 Development Img 2
1) Economic development : Improve the income and job opportunities for the people in the area.
2) Environmental sustainability: Prevent pollution and protect the surrounding sea and land from toxic waste and other harmful impacts.
3) Quality of life : Ensure a safe and healthy environment for the residents by addressing health issues caused by pollution.
4) Fairness and justice : Hold the multinational company accountable for the toxic waste dumping and ensure compensation for the affected individuals.

Question 2.
Read this newspaper report and answer the questions that follows.
A vessel dumped 500 tonnes of liquid toxic wastes into open-air dumps in a city and in the surrounding sea. This happened in a city called Abidjan in Ivory Coast, a country in Africa. The fumes from the highly toxic waste caused nausea, skin rashes, fainting, diarrhoea etc. After a month seven persons were dead, twenty in hospital and twenty six thousand treated for symptoms of poisoning. .
A multinational company dealing in petroleum and metals had contracted a local company of the Ivory Coast to dispose the toxic waste from its ship.
i) Who are the people who benefited and who did not ?
ii) What should be the developmental goal for this country ?
i) People who benefited:
1) The multinational company dealing in petroleum and metals.
2) The local company contracted to dispose of the toxic waste.
3) Potentially, the authorities of Ivory Coast who may have received payment or incentives.

People who did not benefit:
1) The residents of Abidjan who were exposed to the toxic waste.
2) The seven people who died from the exposure.
3) The twenty people who were hospitalised and treated.
4) The twenty-six thousand people who showed symptoms of poisoning,

ii) Developmental goal for this country:
1) Ensuring proper waste management and disposal to protect the environment and public health.
2) Strengthening regulations and enforcement to prevent illegal dumping and harmful activities by multinational companies.
3) Developing and investing in industries and sectors that prioritise sustainability and minimise negative impacts on the environment and public health.
4) Improving healthcare infrastructure and services to effectively respond to and treat pollution-related health issues.

AP 10th Class Social Economics 1st Lesson Questions and Answers Development

Question 3.
What can be some of the developmental goals for your village, town or locality?

  • Improved infrastructure such as roads, bridges, and public transportation.
  • Access to clean water and sanitation facilities.
  • Quality education and skill development opportunities.
  • Availability of healthcare services and facilities.
  • Employment opportunities and economic growth.
  • Environmental sustainability and conservation.
  • Social equality and inclusion.
  • Cultural preservation and promotion.

Page No. 16

1. Give three examples where an average is used for comparing situations.
AP Board 10th Class Social Studies Solutions Chapter 1 Development Img 3
1) Comparing the average income of two countries, A and B, to determine their economic development.
2) Using the average literacy rate of Haryana and Kerala to compare their educational development.
3) Calculating the average BMI (Body Mass Index) of students in a class to determine their nutritional status.

Question 2.
Why do you think average income is an important criterion for development ?
1) Average income is often used as a measure of development because it provides a general indication of the economic well-being of a population.
2) It helps’to compare the economic progress of different countries, as it reflects the overall prosperity and living standards of the people.
3)Average income serves as a basis fordetermining the economic growth and potential of a country.

Question 3.
Besides size of per capita income, what other property of income is important in comparing two or more societies ?
The other property of income that is important in comparing two or more societies, besides the size of per capita income, includes:

  • Distribution of income among the population.
  • Equitable distribution of income.
  • The absence of extreme disparities in income.

Question 4.
Suppose records show that the average income in a country has been increasing over a period of time. From this, can we conclude that all sections of the economy have become better ? Illustrate your answer with an example.

  • No, an increase in average income does not necessarily mean that all sections of the economy have become better.
  • it is possible for certain sections of the economy to have experienced significant improvements while others may not have.
  • For example, if the average income in a country increases due to a rise in wages for highly skilled workers, it may not necessarily reflect improvements for low-skilled workers or those in informal sectors.

Question 5.
From the text, find out the per capita income level low-income countries as per World Development Reports.
Sri Lanka: $ 9779,
India: $ 5497,
Pakistan: $ 486

Question 6.
Write a paragraph on your notion of what should India do, or achieve, to become a developed country.
Based on the current development status of India, there are several key areas that could be focused on to achieve the goal of becoming a developed country. These include improving access to quality education and healthcare for all citizens, promoting sustainable economic growth and job creation, addressing income inequality and social disparities, investing in infrastructure development and technological innovation, and promoting good governance and accountability. Additionally, addressing environmental concerns such as pollution and climate change is also important for sustainable development. Achieving these goals will require a long-term and comprehensive approach, involving cooperation and coordination among government, civil society, private sector, and international organizations.

Page No. 22

Question 1.
Look at data in tables 1.3 and 1.4. Is Haryana ahead of Kerala in literacy rate, etc., as it is in terms of per capita income ?

State Per Capita Income for 2018-19 (in Rs)
Haryana 2,36,147
Kerala 2,04,105
Bihar 40,982


State Infant Mortality Rate per 1,000 live births (2018) Literacy Rate % Net Attendance Ratio (per 100 persons) secondary stage (age 14 and 15 years) 2017-18
Haryana 30 82 61
Kerala 7 94 83
Bihar 32 62 43

1) Haryana is nbt ahead of Kerala in terms of literacy rate.
2) The literacy rate for rural population in Haryana is 76% for males and 54% for females, whereas in Kerala it is 90% for males and 87% for females.
3) This indicates that Kerala has a higher literacy rate than Haryana.

Question 2.
Think of other examples where collective provision of goods and services is cheaper than individual provision.
1) Provision of collective security for a whole locality is cheaper than each house having its own security staff.
2) Government/society providing schools and educational facilities for all children is cheaper than each family sending their children to private schools.
3) Public distribution system (PDS) functioning well in some states leads to better health and nutritional status of people, which is likely to be cheaper than individual efforts to obtain basic necessity.

Question 3.
Does availability of good health and educational facilities depend only on amount of money spent by the government on these facilities ? What other factors could be relevant?
Other factors that could be relevant include :

  • Proper infrastructure and facilities.
  • Accessible locations of facilities.
  • Well-trained and qualified teachers and healthcare professionals.
  • Adequate resources and materials.
  • Supportive policies and regulations.
  • Community involvement and participation.

Question 4.
In Tamil Nadu, 90 percent of the people living in rural areas use a ration shop, whereas in West Bengal only 35 percent of rural people do so. Where would people be better off and Why ?
1) People in Tamil Nadu would be better off because a higher percentage (90%) of rural people use a ration shop compared to West Bengal where only 35% of rural people use one.
2) Ration shops provide access to essential goods at subsidised rates, ensuring food security and reducing the burden on household budgets.
3) Access to ration shops indicates better availability of basic amenities and support for vulnerable populations in Tamil Nadu.

Page No. 26

Example 1.

AP Board 10th Class Social Studies Solutions Chapter 1 Development Img 3
(a) Why groundwater is overused?
Groundwater is overused in many parts of India due to various reasons such as rapid population growth, urbanization, and industrialization, which have increased the demand for water. Additionally, inefficient use of water in agriculture, lack of alternative sources of water, and inadequate regulations and monitoring of groundwater extraction have also contributed to its overuse.

(b) Can there be development without overuse?
Yes, there can be development without overuse of groundwater. Sustainable development that promotes the efficient and equitable use of water resources can help prevent overuse and depletion of groundwater reserves. This can be achieved through measures such as promoting water conservation arid efficient irrigation practices in agriculture, encouraging the use of alternative sources of water, implementing effective regulations and monitoring of groundwater extraction, and investing in water management infrastructure. Additionally, promoting public awareness and education on the importance of water conservation and sustainable development can also help achieve development without overuse of groundwater.

Page No. 28

Example 2 :
Exhaustion of Natural Resources
Look at the following data for-crude oil and answer the following questions.

Region/Country Reserves (2017) (Thousand Million Barrels) Number of Years Reserves will last
Middle East 808 70
United States of America 50 10.5
World 1697 50.2

Source : BP Statistical Review of World Energy, June 2018, P.12.

The table gives an estimate of reserves of crude oil (column!). More important, it Iso tells us for how many years the stock of crude oil will last if people continue to extract it at the present rate. The reserves would last only 50 years more. This is for the world as a whole. However, different countries face different situations. Countries like India depend on importing oil from abroad because they do not have enough stocks of their own. If prices of oil increase this becomes a burden for everyone. There are countries like USA which have low reserves and hence want to secure oil through military or economic power.
The question of sustainability of development raises many fundamentally new issues about the nature and process of development.

a) Is crude oil essential for the development process in a country ? Discuss.
Yes, crude oil essential for the development process in a country because of the following reasons

  • Most of the industries and factory depend on crude oil.
  • 97% of energy required for transportation provided by crude oil.
  • There are also many products such as diesel, jet fuel, LPG, kerosene etc, that we get from crude oil and it is essential for development.

b) India has to import crude oil. What problems do you anticipate for the country looking at the above situation ?
The problems related to import of crude oil in India are as follows :

  • Value of rupee plays very important role in world market.
  • Imports are expensive than exports (India exports petroleum to other countries)
  • Rising crude oil prices.

Page No. 6

Question 1.
Let us try to imagine what development or progress is likely to mean to different persons listed in table 1.1. What are their aspirations ? You will find that some columns are partially filled. Try to complete the table. You can also add any other category of persons.
Developmental Goals of different categories of persons

Category of Person Developmental Goals / Aspirations
Landless rural labourers More days of work and better wages; local school is able to provide quality education for their children; there is no social discrimination and they too can become leaders in the village.
Prosperous farmers from Punjab Assured a high family income through higher support prices for their crops and through hardworking and cheap labourers; they should be able to settle their children abroad.
Farmers who depend only on rain for growing crops Increase in the artificial irrigation facilities, availability of HYV seeds, chemical fertilizers, pesticides and credit facilities to produce best results.
A rural woman from a land owning family A high family income, equality of status, incomes and facilities within the family, availability of quality education and hëalth facilities.
Urban unemployed youth Increase in the employment opportunities, availability of vocational education and training.
A boy from a rich urban family To get quality education and pursue his studies abroad. He requires capital to start his business.
A girl from a rich urban family She gets as much freedom as her brother and is able to decide what she wants to do in life. She is able to pursue her studies abroad.
An adivasi from Narmada valley Rehabilitation, regular work, better wages, education for their children, health facilities.
Urban casual labourers Regular work, better wages, shelter, and vocational training.
People belonging to scheduled castes Higher income, social quality, increase in job opportunities, quality education for their children, better health facilities.

Page No. 16

Question 2.
Based on data given in Table 1.2, calculate the average income for both countries.

Monthly Income of Citizens of Two Countries (in Rupees)

I II III IV V Average Income
Country A 9500 10500 9800 10000 10200 10,000
Country B 500 500 500 500 48000 10,000

Question 1.
Will you be equally happy to live in both these countries?
No, because country B has not equitable distribution of income.

AP 10th Class Social Economics 1st Lesson Questions and Answers Development

Question 2.
Are both equally developed?
No, country A has equitable distribution of income among its citizens. In country B, 4 out 5 citizens are poor.

Leave a Comment